Handbook of industrial water treatment pdf

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Handbook of Industrial Water Treatment. Introduction · Chapter Water Sources, Impurities and Chemistry · Chapter 02 - Environmental Considerations. Handbook of Industrial Water Treatment - Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. handbook, the "KURITA HANDBOOK OF WATER TREATMENT." Founded in , KURITA WATER INDUSTRIES LTD., has become a leader in the field of.

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Manager's Handbook for I S 0 and Pollution Ppeventiors. He received his . treatment plant, whether industrial, a municipal wastewater treatment facility, or PdF,. The component acting in the direction of flow, dR, is equal to dzcosa. industries. The book maintains its approach of identifying the fundamental chemical and physical Treatment Evaluation Process: Industrial Wastewater. 2 Industrial Waste Treatment Handbook. Figure Approach for developing an industrial waste- water treatment system. usually starts with a.

It is estimated that problems due to boiler system corrosion cost industry billions of dollars per year. Deposition is a major problem in the operation of steam generating equipment. The quality of feedwater required is dependent on boiler operating pressure, design, heat transfer rates, and steam use. Most boiler systems have sodium zeolite softened or demineralized makeup water. Feedwater hardness usually ranges from 0. Therefore, good internal boiler water treatment programs are necessary. Impurities in fuels can cause deposit formation and fireside metal surface corrosion.

In systems which do not have a deaerator. There are several types of deaerator available. Consult a water treatment expert to get you started on the right foot. Another common cause of corrosion in boiler systems is low pH within the boiler. When dissolved. Oxygen corrosion is normally controlled by driving the oxygen from the feed-water in a deaerating heater or by chemically removing it with an oxygen scavenger such as sodium sulfite.

Back to Top How do I stop Corrosion? You can use a deaerator which is defined as a piece of equipment which heats water with steam to insure essentially complete removal of dissolved gases. What is corrosion? Corrosion in boilers can almost always be traced to one or both of two problems. In systems equipped with a deaerator the sulfite should be fed to the storage tank of the deaerator or to either the suction or pressure side of the feed water pump.

Internal treatment for carbon dioxide is normally accomplished by the use of a volatile amine.

Industrial Waste Treatment Handbook

Most oxygen scavengers contain a catalyst which speeds the reaction of the sulfite with the oxygen. Satisfactory reduction of carbon dioxide corrosion is possible with the use of a neutralizing amine.

There are normally referred to as "neutralizing amines" or "filming amines" depending upon whether they neutralize the acid formed by carbon dioxide or form a protective film on the metal. Answer to: In untreated boiler-water. A carbonate deposit is usually granular and some-times of a very porous nature. A carbonate deposit can be easily identified by dropping it in a solution of acid.


A sulphate deposit is brittle. The crystal of silica are extremely small. In general. The most common types of boiler deposits may contain: Calcium cabonate. Boiler scale is caused by impurities being precipitated out of the water directly on heat transfer surfaces or by suspended matter in water settling out on the metal and becoming hard and adherent.

It is not soluble in hydrochloric acid and is usually very light coloured. A sulphate deposit is much harder and more dense than a carbonate deposit because the crystals are smaller and cement together tighter. The crystals of calcium carbonate are large but usually are matted together with finely divided particles of other materials so that the scale looks dense and uniform.

Bubbles of carbon dioxide will effervsce from the scale. Deposits are seldom composed of one constituent alone but are generally a mixture of various types of minerals.

That is as minerals are deposited out from water they form many types of crystalline and rock-like structures such as are encountered in the earth's strata. This scale is extremely brittle and very difficult to pulverize. A high silica deposit is very hard.

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The high temperatures break down some minerals. Evaporation in a boiler causes impurities to concentrate. Iron deposits in boilers are most often magnetic.

The biggest problem that deposits cause is over-heating and failure of boiler tubes. This causes the metal itself to become over heated.

Iron deposits.

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In the steam and condensate system corrosion is generally the result of c ontamination with carbon dioxide and oxygen. Corrosion may occur in the feed-water system as a result of low pH water and the presence of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide.

This is usually associated with improper corrosion prevention. When the overheating is severe enough the metal fails. Corrosion may produce general attach over a large metal surface or it may result in pinpoint penetration of metal.

Boiler deposits can also cause plugging or partial obstruction of corrosive attack underneath the deposits may occur. This type of cracking in boiler metal may occur by two different mechanisms. In the first mechanism.

Specific contaminants such as ammonia or sulphur bearing gases may increase attack on copper alloys in the system. High temperatures and stresses in the boiler metal tend to accelerate the corrosive mechanisms. A deposit acts as an insulator and excessive deposits prevent an efficient transfer of heat through the tubes to the circulating water.

In the boiler metal tend to accelerate the corrosive mechanisms. What is Carrosion? Stated simply. While basic corrosion in boilers may be primarily due to reaction of the metal with oxygen. They are soluble in hot acid giving a dark brown coloured solution. The second type of corrosion fatigue cracking occures in boilers with properly treated water. Corrosion in the boiler proper generally occurs when the boiler water alkalinity is low or when the metal is exposed to wxygen bearing water either during operation or idle periods.

The process of corrosion. Since scale can cause overheating and failure of boiler metal. The corrosion of boiler system metal is a complex process and takes many forms: These cracks often originate where the metal surfaces are covered by a dense protective oxide film and cracking occurs from the action of applied cyclic stresses. In steam condensate system. Even small amounts ot iron. Caustic cracking caustic embrittlement is a serious type of boiler metal failure characterized by continous.

The metal mus be stressed. High temper-atures speed up the. Why Water Treatment is Needed: As feed-water enters a boiler the heat causes hardness cal-cium and magnesium salts to come out of solution. Corrosion underneath certain types of boiler deposits can so weaken the metal that failure of tubes occurs.

The first is deterioration of the metal itself. In these cases corrosion fatigue is probably a misnomer. The following conditions appear to be necessary for this type of cracking to occure: As water evaporates in the boiler the feed-water impurities concentrate. Corrosion fatigue cracks are usually thick.


They usually start at internal tube surfaces and are most often circumferential on the tube. Untreated the hardness deposits on the hot boiler metal to from scale.

While mechanical and operational factors also cause carry-over. Carry-over results in deposits and other problems in turbines. This produces carry-over of the water and its impurities into the steam. High concentrations of dissolved and suspended matter in boiler-water can cause foaming of the water at the steam release surface.

Corrosion is damaging from several standpoints: Chemical treatment for cooling water. Water treatment plant performance evaluations and operations. Membrane Technology in Water and Wastewater Treatment.

Developments in Water Treatment 2 Development Series. Physical-chemical treatment of water and wastewater. Advances in Water Treatment and Environmental Management. Introduction to Potable Water Treatment Processes. MWH's Water Treatment: Principles and Design. Physical-Chemical Treatment of Water and Wastewater. Physical-chemical Treatment of Water and Wastewater. Advances in Water and Wastewater Treatment Technology.

Water Treatment: Plant Performance Evaluations and Operations.

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