>

Mba hr notes pdf

Date published: 

     

Concept based notes. Human Resource Management. MBA (II SEM). Richa Khunteta. Surbhi Mathur. Dept of MBA. Biyani Institute of Science & Management, . human resource management semester notes week what is hrm? the focus of hrm is on managing people within the employer-employee relationship. it involves. Download MBA Human Resource Management complete notes pdf. Here We Provide the Links to Download MBA 2nd sem HRM Study.

Author: PAMILA RIBLETT
Language: English, Spanish, Dutch
Country: Costa Rica
Genre: Science & Research
Pages: 403
Published (Last): 24.12.2015
ISBN: 547-5-54594-819-3
PDF File Size: 20.70 MB
Distribution: Free* [*Regsitration Required]
Uploaded by: HILDA

8702 downloads 23360 Views 35.68MB ePub Size Report


HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. Class.: I MBA being prepared by me and it meets the Computer Applications In Human Resource Management. GLOBAL HR PRACTICES. UNIT – I. CHAPTER – I. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS & GLOBALISATION. INTRODUCTION. Globalisation for better or worse has. MBA – II Semester. Paper Code: MBAC PAPER – VIII. Human Resources Management. Objectives ӹ To understand and appreciate the.

Since every organization is made up of people, acquiring their services, developing their skills, motivating them to higher levels of performance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organization are essential to achieving organizational objectives. This is true, regardless of the type of the organization — government, business, education, health, recreational, or social action. HRM is management function that helps managers to recruit, select, train and develop members for an organization. Organizations mean people. It is the people who staff and manage organizations.

Since jobs are becoming highly intellectual and incumbents getting vastly professionalized. Further technology changes would further upgrade or degrade jobs and create manpower shortages. Cope with change: HRP enables an enterprise to cope with changes in competitive forces.

Protection of weaker sections: This is also because the process of meeting staffing needs from foreign countries grows in a complex manner. From this angle. Such changes generate changes in job content.

International strategies: International expansion strategies largely depend upon effective HRP. Foundation of personnel functions: HRP provides essential information for designing and implementing personnel functions such as recruitment.

The growing resistance towards change and move. Management can anticipate imbalances before they become unmanageable and expensive. Here HRP becomes very important and needs the resources to be planned carefully. Other benefits: Following are the other benefits of HRP. Better opportunities exists to include women and minorities in future growth plans 5.

Upper management has a better view of HR dimensions of business 2. More time is provided to locate talent 4. It is important that employees are used effectively throughout their careers. Better planning of assignments to develop managers 6. Increasing investments in HR: Another importance is the investment that an organization makes in human capital. Major and successful demands on local labor markets can be made.

HRP needs to sub-serve the overall objectives by ensuring availability and utilization of human resources. Work Study Techniques: It is possible when work measurement to calculate the length of operations and the amount of manpower required. Delphi Techniques: This technique solicits estimates from a group of experts. This can be bottom-up or top-down approach and judgments can be reviewed across departments.

The basis should be annual budget and long term corporate plans Demand forecasting should be based on following factors. The starting point can be production budget. Specific policies need to be formulated to address the following decisions.

Internal Factors: In this techniques managers across all the levels decide the forecast on their own judgment. Ration-Trend Analysis: This technique involves studying past ratios. Establish categories. Of separations p. Here demand is a function of replacing those who make a transition. Determine the time required. Count annual movements. Reasons for Manpower Supply Forecasting: Existing Human Resources: HR Audits facilitate analysis of existing employees with skills and abilities.

Manpower Supply Forecasting: Flow Models: This technique involves the flow of following components. Estimate probable transitions.

The existing employees can be categorized as skills inventories non-managers and managerial inventories managers Skill inventory would include the following. Most successful programs seem to include top managements involvement and commitment. The focus is not more on career development but it is more A typical succession planning involves following activities. The HR Plan should include budgets. For these identifying and managing redundancies is very essential.

The programs also cover the identification of resource personnel for conducting development program. Finally the selected employees also need to be placed on proper jobs. Downsizing plans: Where there is surplus workforce trimming of labor force will be necessary. Retention Plan: Retention plans cover actions. Based on the manpower demand and supply forecasts made.

Retraining and Redeployment. Employees are hired against the job vacancies. Here some companies recruit employees for specific jobs while others recruit fresh trainees in large number and train them for future manpower needs. Managerial Succession Planning.

These plans may simply be reports on the numbers employed. HR Plan Implementation: Training and Development: The training and development program is charted out to cover the number of trainees.

For this internal and external sources of manpower are utilized. New skills are to be imparted to existing staff when technology changes or product line discontinued. Employees need to be redeployed to other departments where they could be gainfully employed. A formal selection board is established to interview and select the best of the candidates for the required vacancies.

Using compensation plans. Methods of managerial succession plans may vary. Objectives of Career Planning 1. It focuses on the basis of performance. For example in succession planning the key concern can be who will be next CEO or what will happen if the Marketing Manager retires in coming March. Allow individual to achieve personal and work related goals.

Further the organization is concerned about if it should employ more graduates. Reduce personal turnover expenses 4. Career planning provides picture of succession plan for employees as per organizational needs.

Ensure organizational effectiveness 6. Build commitment in the individual 2. Importance of Career Planning Career planning is important because it helps the individual to explore. In career planning. Career as a concept means a lifelong sequences of professional. Succession planning focuses on identification of vacancies and locating the probable successor.

It is a sequence of positions occupied by a person during his life. Lessen employee obsolescence 5. Career may also be defined as amalgamation of changes in values. Process of Collecting Information Develop long-range perspective 3. Steps of Job Analysis 1. Each job has certain ability requirements as well as certain rewards associated with it.

Training and development programs can be designed depending upon job requirement and analysis. It is a basic technical procedure that is used to define duties and responsibilities and accountabilities of the job.

Strategic Choices Process 2: Collecting Information Process 3: Processing Information Job Analysis. Job Analysis is a process used to identify these requirements. Job related information in the form of Job Analysis serves this purpose or use. The process of job analysis results into two sets of data. It helps HR to locate places to obtain employees.

Also selecting a good candidate also requires detailed job information.

Human resource management pdf,ebook,lecture notes download for MBA students

Job analysis also helps in determining wage and salary for all jobs. It also helps in better continuity and planning in staffing in the organization. Job analysis is vital for building personnel information systems and processes for improving administrative efficiency and providing decision support. The numbers and types of personnel are determined by the jobs.

Checking the job information for accuracy 3. Selection of trainees is also facilitated by job analysis. Writing job description based on information collected to determine the skills. Performance appraisal. Recruitment precedes job analysis. This is possible with the help of job description and specifications.

Job Analysis helps to uncover hazardous conditions and unhealthy environmental factors so that corrective measures can be taken to minimize and avoid possibility of human injury. Job evaluation means determination of relative worth of each job for the purpose of establishing wage and salary credentials. Collecting and recording job information 2. Level of details of job analysis: The nature of jobs being analyzed determines the level of details in job analysis.

Timing and frequency of Job Analysis: When do you do Job Analysis? However more future oriented analysis may be derived based on past data. Sources of Job Data: For job analysis number of human and non-human sources is available besides jobholder himself. For traditional organizations past oriented analysis would be required.

Experience Methods of Data Collection: If the purpose were for training programs or assessing the worth of job. Hence extent of involvement depends on the needs of the organization and employee. Following can be sources of data available for job analysis. Past-oriented and future-oriented Job Analysis: For rapidly changing organization more future oriented approach would be desired. Equipments and Work Aids List. If the purpose is just clarification the details required would be less.

Process 4: Job Description Process 5: Job Specification Strategic Choices: Extent of employee involvement is a debatable point. Besides it may also lead to inaccurate information. Too less involvement leads to suspicion about the motives behind the job. Too much involvement may result in bias in favor of a job in terms of inflating duties and responsibilities.

It is more similar to questionnaire but the response sheet contains fewer subjective judgments and tends to be either yes or no variety. I — Importance of Job 3. Specifically job related data would be useful to prepare job description and specifications. It can be Structured or Unstructured Interview. Quantitative Methods of Job Data Collection: Plus there is also a problem of bias. A standard questionnaire is given to jobholder about his job.

Technical Conference: Here a conference of supervisors is used. Preparation of checklist is a challenging job itself. P — Possibility of Occurrence of Job 5. If done faithfully this technique is accurate and eliminates errors caused by memory lapses etc. The questionnaire may contain job title. Diary Methods: In this method jobholder is required to note down their activities day by day in their diary.

However the accuracy of information leaves much to be desired. The PAQ contains job elements on which job is created depending on the degree to which an element is present. A — Applicability of Job 6.

In this analyst interviews the jobholders. The analysts must be fully trained observers. However this method lacks accuracy. Again this is also a time consuming method in case of large organizations. Who to Collect Data? However PAQ needs to be completed by trained job analysts only rather than incumbents.

It is useful in large number of staffs and less time consuming. It is a simple and accurate method. Functional Job Analysis: This analysis provides a comparison of a specific job with other job classifications.

The analysts initiate the discussions providing job details.

Job Analyst carefully observes the jobholder and records the information in terms of what. These elements are grouped together into 6 categories. T — Time 4. It is a worker oriented job analytical approach. Contents of Job Description 1. Comprehensive Job Summary 4. Job Identification 2. Proper Job Title 3. Work conditions 7.

Showcase degrees of difficulties 9. Easily understandable 6. Job Duties and Responsibilities 4. Up to date 2. Job Summary 3. Work hazards 8. Indicates opportunities for career development State job requirements 7. Job specifications seeks to indicate what kind of persons may be expected to most closely approximate the role requirements and thus it is basically concerned with matters of selection.

Job description is a broad statement of purpose. Supervision specification 5. These specifications are needed to do job satisfactorily.

Clear duties and responsibilities 5. Specify reporting relationships 8. It defines continuing work assignment and a scope of responsibility that are sufficiently different from those of the other jobs to warrant a specific title.

Human Resource Management Notes Mba

How much time involved? Personal characteristics 4. Jobs are evaluated on the basis of content. Each of these factors are then ranked with other jobs. Identify jobs to be evaluated Benchmark jobs or all jobs b. Remuneration also involves fringe benefits. Employees need to be compensated depending on the grades of jobs which they occupy. What training do the evaluators need? Responsibilities 5. Process of Job Evaluation: Physical Characteristics 2.

Relative worth is determined mainly on the basis of job description and job specification only. Job evaluation is a process of analyzing and assessing the various jobs systematically to ascertain their relative worth in an organization.

Jobs are ranked on the basis of its title or contents. Who should evaluate job? Employee Classification 4. Factor Comparison Method: The important factors are selected which can be assumed to be common to all jobs.

Defining objectives of job evaluation a. Psychological characteristics 3. Different factors are selected for different jobs with accompanying differences in degrees and points. Wage Survey 3. Ignoring this basic principle results in inequitable compensation.

This establishes Job Hierarchies. Establishing wage and salary differentials. What are the criteria for evaluation? Jobs are ranked not jobholders Scope of Job Evaluation The job evaluation is done for the purpose of wage and salary differentials.

Job is not broken down into factors etc. Methods of evaluation to be used 2. Contents of Job Specifications 1. Job Evaluation helps to determine wages and salary grades for all jobs.

A perception of inequity is a sure way of de-motivating an employee. Clearly remuneration must be based on the relative worth of each job. The worth of the job is then taken by adding together all the point values. It is based on the job as a whole and the differentiation is made on the basis of job classes and grades. Further the worker becomes more valuable to the organization.

Pitfalls of Job Evaluation: On the negative side. Here jobs remain unchanged. Specification of Individual Tasks 2. Besides jobs may not improve the relationships between task. Specification of Methods of Tasks Performance 3. Work simplification is used when jobs are not specialized. Periodic job changes can improve interdepartmental cooperation. In this method it is important to form a grade description to cover discernible differences in skills.

Job is simplified or specialized. On the positive side. Workers become more competent in several jobs. The job is broken down into small parts and each part is assigned to an individual.

Further training costs also rise and it can also Definition 1: Integration of work. To be more specific.

Job Rotation: When incumbents become bore of routine jobs. Adding more tasks or duties to a job does not mean that new skills and abilities are needed. Additional features in job meet certain psychological needs of jobholders due to skill variety. Workload increases 5. Worker Paced Control 5.

In other words. Task Variety 2. Meaningful Work Modules 3. It means passing on more authority and responsibility. Unions resistance. Empowerment is a by-product of job enrichment. Benefits of Job enrichment 1. There is only horizontal expansion. Job enlargement is naturally opposite to work simplification. As per the two-factor motivation theory. Jobs may still remain boring and routine Job Enrichment: Full Ability Utilization 4. For this employees also need to be trained to adjust to the new system.

Demerits of Job Enrichment 1. High Training Costs 2.

Human Resource Management Notes Mba | Human Resource Management | Strategic Management

It is with same skills taking additional responsibilities like extending working hours etc. The employee does more planning and controlling with less supervision but more self-evaluation.

An enriched job will have more responsibility. Job enrichment itself might not be a great motivator since it is job-intrinsic factor. Job enlargement may involve breaking up of the existing work system and redesigning a new work system. Job enlargement is said to contribute to employee motivation but the claim is not validated in practice. Job enrichment stimulates improvements in other areas of organization. Unions demand pay—hike 6. Lazy employees may not be able to take additional responsibilities and power.

Redesigning existing work system required 3. It should be preceded by hygienic factors etc. It also adds to employee self-esteem and self-control. It benefits employee and organization in terms of increased motivation. Job Enlargement: It means expanding the number of tasks. Benefits of Job Enlargement: Productivity may not increase necessarily 4.

Training requirements are reduced and it benefits the organizations in terms of cost. Job design is a conscious effort to organize tasks. High Performance Work Design: Improving performance in an environment where positive and demanding goals are set leads to high performance work design.

It also improves workers self image. It starts from the principle of autonomous groups working and developing an approach. All these factors lead to increased level of motivation and hence make the jobs more motivated.

Autonomous of Self-Directed Teams: Empowerment results in self-directed work teams. So we can say that Designing Jobs is actually creating Motivated Jobs. Workers become more competent in several jobs rather than only one. Hence job rotation helps the job become more motivating. Simplified jobs are easy to perform hence employees find it easy to do. Job enlargement involves expanding number of tasks or duties assigned to a given job.

How a job design creates a motivating job can be seen with the help of certain components of job design. Job enrichment involves improving task efficiency and human satisfaction. Work simplification simplifies the job by breaking down the job into small parts. However due to bureaucracy high performance work design does not work. Job enrichment provides greater scope for personal achievement and recognition.

Workers participation may affect the enrichment process itself. Periodic job change can improve inter-departmental cooperation. It improves the intrinsic reward potential of a job because of different skills and abilities are needed to perform a job.

Job enrichment assumes that workers want more responsibilities and those workers who are motivated by less responsibility. Change is difficult to implement and is always resisted as job enrichment brings in a changes the responsibility.

Operational flexibility is important and there is the need for employees to gain and apply new skills quickly with minimum supervision. An enriched job gives vertical enrichment in the form of more responsibility and autonomy and a horizontal enrichment in the form of variety of tasks and more growth opportunities. The attitudes related to job may be wages. Considering above examples. A self —directed team is an intact group of employees responsible for whole work segment. Job rotation means movement of employees of job to job across the organization.

Consequently it provides a high level of motivation to employees because jobs itself become motivators. Job design affects employee productivity.

In short job satisfaction is a general attitude. Components of Job Satisfaction Personal factors: Education and Personality. Advantages of Work SamplingIt is relatively inexpensive to use and extremely helpful in providing a deeper understanding of all types of operations.

Job inherent factors: Type of work. Many studies make use of off-shift technicians or operators to take the observations.

Work sampling Methodology Measuring and quantifying activities"A measurement technique for the quantitative analysis of non-repetitive or irregularly occurring activity. Also assume that random observations were made of the operator and during 24 of these he or she was observed to be idle. Size of plant Management controlled factors: Fringe benefits. When properly used. Advancement opportunities and Working conditions.

Occupational status. Work sampling operates by an observer taking a series of random observations on a particular "thing" of interest machine. When enough samples are taken. Evaluate effectiveness of various recruitment techniques and sources for job applicants. Determine the present and future requirements in conjunction with personnel planning and job analysis activities 2.

A brief example might be that 77 of observations showed a machine to be running. Reduce the probability that job applicants once selected would leave shortly 5. Meet legal and social obligations 6. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost 3. The result is a pool of application from which new employees are selected.

Help increase success rate of selection process by reducing number of under-qualified or over- qualified applications. Recruitment is understood as the process of searching for and obtaining applicants for jobs. The Process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The ratio of the number of observations of a given state of the activity to the total number of observations taken will approximate the percentage of time that the activity is in that given state.

We might then conclude. Though theoretically recruitment process is said to end with the receipt of applications. Note that random observations are very critical for a work sampling study. Identify and prepare potential job applicants 7. Besides this there are some other tests also like Morale problem for those not enhanced promoted. Preliminary Interview: The purpose of preliminary interviews is basically to eliminate unqualified applications based on information supplied in application forms.

Compliance with reservation policy denied becomes easy 2. A formal definition of Selection is as under Definition of Selection: On the other hands preliminary interviews is often called a courtesy interview and is a good public relations exercise.

Less Costly 1. Candidates already oriented towards 2. Selection is the process of picking up individuals out of the pool of job applicants with requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organization. Benefits of new skills and talents 1. Selection is concerned with picking up identifying and encouraging the right candidates from a pool of prospective employees to apply for applicants.

It is costly method 4. It abets raiding organization 3. Selection Tests: Jobseekers who past the preliminary interviews are called for tests. Recruitment refers to the process of 1. Employee morale and motivation is 5. Recruitment Selection 1.

Old concept of doing things 2. Politics play greater roles 4. Chances of creeping in false positive heartburn are avoided. Scope for resentment. These tests can be Aptitude Tests. Better morale and motivation 2. Candidates current work may be 3. Personality Tests. The basic objective is to reject misfits. Benefits of new experiences associated with internal recruiting is 3. Selection on the other hand is negative 2.

There are various types of tests conducted depending upon the jobs and the company. Recruitment is said to be positive in its in its application in as much as it seeks approach as it seeks to attract as many to eliminate as many unqualified candidates as possible. Organizations have better knowledge affected about internal candidates 4.

Adjustment of new employees takes longer time. Graphology Test Handwriting. Check competence of recruitment consultants before retention 5. Panel Interview.

Human Resource Management

Stress Interviews. Psychometric Tests etc. Pressure brought on selectors by politicians. Job Offer: The next step in selection process is job offer to those applicants who have crossed all the previous hurdles. It is considered to be an excellent selection device.

A reliable test may fail to predict job performance with precision. Here is a need to prepare a formal contract of employment. Reference checks can be through formal letters. It is made by way of letter of appointment. Involve line managers at all stages 6. We all perceive the world differently. Behavioral Interviews. Employment Interview: The next step in selection is employment interview. Medical Tests. Trained the selectors 3. Detailed job descriptions and job specifications prepared in advance and endorsed by personnel and line management 2.

A test that has been validated can differentiate between the employees who can perform well and those who will not. Interest Tests activity preferences. Contract of Employment: After the job offer is made and candidates accept the offer. The views of line managers are considered generally because it is the line manager who is responsible for the performance of the new employee.

Besides there can be Structured and Unstructured interviews. However it does not predict the job success accurately. Determine aids to be used for selection process 4. Physical Examination: After the selection decision is made. The final decision has to be made out of applicants who have passed preliminary interviews. Selection Decision: After obtaining all the information. Our limited perceptual ability is obviously a stumbling block to the objective and rational selection of people.

Reference checks and background checks are conducted to verify the information provided by the candidates.

Pdf mba hr notes

Attempt to validate the procedure 7. However it is merely a formality and selections decisions are seldom affected by it. Barriers of fairness includes discrimination against religion. A job offer is often contingent upon the candidate passing the physical examination.

Interviews can be One-to-One. Hence we can say that Training is offered to operatives. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development means those learning opportunities designed to help employees to grow. Development provides knowledge about business environment. The education is more important for managers and executives rather than low cadre workers. Creating self awareness 3. Develop inspiring leadership styles 4.

To subordinate their functional loyalties to the interests of the organization Difference between Training and Development Training Development Training is skills focused Development is creating learning abilities In fact organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on part time basis.

Development is not primarily skills oriented. Development and Education. Anyways education is common to all employees. No training program is complete without an element of education. Instill zest for excellence 5. Teach them about effective communication 6. Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. An employee undergoing training is presumed to have had some formal education. That any training and development program must contain an element of education is well understood by HR Specialists.

The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgment. It is a theoretical learning in classrooms. Development activities such as those supplied by management development programs are generally voluntary in nature.

Any such program has university professors as resource persons to enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topics proposed to discuss.

CEOs are known to attend refresher courses conducted by business schools. Instead it provides the general knowledge and attitudes. Attitude Surveys 5. Interviews 3. Performance Appraisals 2. Training is presumed to have a formal Development is not education dependent education Training needs depend upon lack or Development depends on personal drive deficiency in skills and ambition Trainings are generally need based Development is voluntary Training is a narrower concept focused on Development is a broader concept focused job related skills on personality development Training may not include development Development includes training wherever necessary Training is aimed at improving job related Development aims at overall personal efficiency and performance effectiveness including job efficiencies What are the Training Inputs?

Questionnaires 4. Work Sampling 7. Training Progress Feedback 6. Job Coaching: Advantages of Off-the-Job Training: Organizational Goals and Objectives 2. Trainers Perception Gaps can be reduced between employees and their supervisorsTrainers can design course inputs closer to the specific needs of the participants 3.

Diagnosis of causes of performance deficiencies can be done Methods of Training On the Job Trainings: These methods are generally applied on the workplace while employees is actually working.

It may be in the form of orders or steps to perform a task. The objective is to give a comprehensive awareness about the jobs of different departments. Internships and Assistantships: An intern or an assistants are recruited to perform a specific time-bound jobs or projects during their education.

Advantage — employee gets to know how his own and other departments also function. Organizational Climate Indices 4. Quality Circles 8. Job Instruction: It may consist an instruction or directions to perform a particular task or a function. Trainers can be informed about the broader needs in advance 2. It may consist a part of their educational courses. Customer Satisfaction Survey 9. Following are the on-the-job methods.

Disadvantage — It may become too much for an employee to learn. Interdepartmental coordination can be improved. Efficiency Indices 5. Generally fresh graduates are put under the experienced employee to learn the functions of job.

Following are the off-the-job methods. Off the Job Trainings: These are used away from work places while employees are not working like classroom trainings. Advantages of On-the-Job Training: It is directly in the context of job It is often informal It is most effective because it is learning by experience It is least expensive Trainees are highly motivated It is free from artificial classroom situations Disadvantages of On-the-Job Training: Trainer may not be experienced enough to train It is not systematically organized Poorly conducted programs may create safety hazards On the Job Training Methods 1.

You might also like: SAP NOTES AS PDF

In this method. Exit Interviews 6. It is not focused on employees own job responsibilities. Employees basic talents may remain under utilized. Attitudinal change is another result. Advantages — Wide range of realistic examples. Advantages — increased ability to empathize. No flexibility for different audience. Cost per trainee is low. It is One-way communication. Advantage — It can be used for large groups.

Following are some of the simulation methods of trainings a. Advantages — Self paced. For this employees also need to be trained to adjust to the new system.

Redesigning existing work system required 3. Job enlargement may involve breaking up of the existing work system and redesigning a new work system. High Training Costs 2. Unions demand pay—hike 6. It also adds to employee self-esteem and self-control. It means passing on more authority and responsibility. Task Variety 2. It benefits employee and organization in terms of increased motivation. The employee does more planning and controlling with less supervision but more self-evaluation.

Job enrichment itself might not be a great motivator since it is job-intrinsic factor. Job enlargement is naturally opposite to work simplification. Productivity may not increase necessarily 4. It should be Jobs may still remain boring and routine J ob Enr ic hm ent: An enriched job will have more responsibility. Job enrichment stimulates improvements in other areas of organization. Worker Paced Control 5. Meaningful Work Modules 3. Lazy employees may not be able to take additional responsibilities and power.

Workload increases 5. Unions resistance. However due to bureaucracy high performance work design does not work. Job enrichment assumes that workers want more responsibilities and those workers who are motivated by less responsibility.

Empowerment results in self-directed work teams. Operational flexibility is important and there is the need for employees to gain and apply new skills quickly with minimum supervision. It starts from the principle of autonomous groups working and developing an approach.

Change is difficult to implement and is always resisted as job enrichment brings in a changes the responsibility. Improving performance in an environment where positive and demanding goals are set leads to high performance work design.

A self —directed team is an intact group of employees responsible for whole work segment. Workers participation may affect the enrichment process itself. So we can say that Designing Jobs is actually creating Motivated Jobs.

Simplified jobs are easy to perform hence employees find it easy to do. It also improves workers self image. Considering above examples. Job enrichment involves improving task efficiency and human satisfaction. Hence job rotation helps the job become more motivating.

All these factors lead to increased level of motivation and hence make the jobs more motivated. Job enlargement involves expanding number of tasks or duties assigned to a given job. The employee does more planning and controlling with less supervision but more selfevaluation.

Job design affects employee productivity. Work simplification simplifies the job by breaking down the job into small parts. Job enrichment provides greater scope for personal achievement and recognition. Consequently it provides a high level of motivation to employees because jobs itself become motivators.

Job design is a conscious effort to organize tasks. Training requirements are reduced and it benefits the organizations in terms of cost. Periodic job change can improve inter-departmental cooperation. It improves the intrinsic reward potential of a job because of different skills and abilities are needed to perform a job.

Job rotation means movement of employees of job to job across the organization. How a job design creates a motivating job can be seen with the help of certain components of job design. Workers become more competent in several jobs rather than only one. An enriched job gives vertical enrichment in the form of more responsibility and autonomy and a horizontal enrichment in the form of variety of tasks and more growth opportunities. In short job satisfaction is a general attitude. Components of Job Satisfaction Personal factors: Fringe benefits.

Advancement opportunities and Working conditions. The attitudes related to job may be wages. Occupational status. Size of plant Management controlled factors: Job inherent factors: Type of work. Education and Personality. Measuring and quantifying activities "A measurement technique for the quantitative analysis of non-repetitive or irregularly occurring activity.

When we are not adding value to the product. Many studies make use of off-shift technicians or operators to take the observations. When enough samples are taken. Work sampling operates by an observer taking a series of random observations on a particular "thing" of interest machine.

Also assume that random observations were made of the operator and during 24 of these he or she was observed to be idle. Advantages of Work Sampling It is relatively inexpensive to use and extremely helpful in providing a deeper understanding of all types of operations.

When properly used. How are our inter-dependent systems performing? Where should we focus our continuous improvement activities? We might then conclude.

A brief example might be that 77 of observations showed a machine to be running. The ratio of the number of observations of a given state of the activity to the total number of observations taken will approximate the percentage of time that the activity is in that given state.

Note that random observations are very critical for a work sampling study. Reduce the probability that job applicants once selected would leave shortly 5. Though theoretically recruitment process is said to end with the receipt of applications.

Identify and prepare potential job applicants 7.

Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost 3. Recruitment is understood as the process of searching for and obtaining applicants for jobs.

The result is a pool of application from which new employees are selected. Help increase success rate of selection process by reducing number of under-qualified or over-qualified applications. Determine the present and future requirements in conjunction with personnel planning and job analysis activities 2. The Process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted.

Evaluate effectiveness of various recruitment techniques and sources for job applicants. Meet legal and social obligations 6. Candidates already oriented towards 2.

Politics play greater roles 4. Employee morale and motivation is 5. Morale problem for those not enhanced promoted. It abets raiding organization 3.

Organizations have better knowledge affected about internal candidates 4. Old concept of doing things 2. Less Costly 1. Candidates current work may be 3. Besides this there are some other tests also like Interest Tests activity preferences. The basic objective is to reject misfits. Pr elim ina r y I nt er view: The purpose of preliminary interviews is basically to eliminate unqualified applications based on information supplied in application forms.

Interviews can be One-to-One. Panel Interview. Scope for resentment. Graphology Test Handwriting. Besides there can be Structured and Unstructured interviews. Adjustment of new employees takes longer time. Selection is concerned with picking up the right candidates from a pool of applicants. Chances of creeping in false positive and false negative errors 4. On the other hands preliminary interviews is often called a courtesy interview and is a good public relations exercise.

Benefits of new skills and talents 2. There are various types of tests conducted depending upon the jobs and the company. Selection is the process of picking up individuals out of the pool of job applicants with requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organization. The final decision has to be made out of applicants who Better morale and motivation associated with internal recruiting is denied 2.

Stress Interviews. Medical Tests. Selec t io n Test s: Jobseekers who past the preliminary interviews are called for tests.

A formal definition of Selection is as under Definit io n o f Selec t io n: Reference checks can be through formal letters. Recruitment is said to be positive in its approach as it seeks to attract as many candidates as possible. Selec t io n Dec isio n: After obtaining all the information. Behavioral Interviews. Selection 1. Psychometric Tests etc. Benefits of new experiences 3. Selection on the other hand is negative in its application in as much as it seeks to eliminate as many unqualified applicants as possible in order to identify the right candidates.

Em plo ym ent Int er view: The next step in selection is employment interview. It is considered to be an excellent selection device. However it is merely a formality and selections decisions are seldom affected by it. Personality Tests. These tests can be Aptitude Tests. Recruitment 1. Reference checks and background checks are conducted to verify the information provided by the candidates.

Compliance with reservation policy becomes easy 4. Recruitment refers to the process of identifying and encouraging prospective employees to apply for jobs. It is costly method 3. Trained the selectors 3.

Determine aids to be used for selection process 4. Our limited perceptual ability is obviously a stumbling block to the objective and rational selection of people. Relia bilit y: A reliable test may fail to predict job performance with precision.

After the selection decision is made. Involve line managers at all stages 6. After the job offer is made and candidates accept the offer. Pr essur e: Pressure brought on selectors by politicians. Va lidit y: A test that has been validated can differentiate between the employees who can perform well and those who will not.

J ob Offer: The next step in selection process is job offer to those applicants who have crossed all the previous hurdles. A job offer is often contingent upon the candidate passing the physical examination. Here is a need to prepare a formal contract of employment. Detailed job descriptions and job specifications prepared in advance and endorsed by personnel and line management 2.

Attempt to validate the procedure 7. However it does not predict the job success accurately. It is made by way of letter of appointment.

The views of line managers are considered generally because it is the line manager who is responsible for the performance of the new employee. Per c ept io n: We all perceive the world differently. Fa ir ness: Barriers of fairness includes discrimination against religion.

Check competence of recruitment consultants before retention 5. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development activities such as those supplied by management development programs are generally voluntary in nature.

The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgment. Development is not primarily skills oriented. That any training and development program must contain an element of education is well understood by HR Specialists.

No training program is complete without an element of education. In fact organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on part time basis. It is a theoretical learning in classrooms. Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Instead it provides the general knowledge and attitudes. Any such program has university professors as resource persons to enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topics proposed to discuss.

Development and Education. Development means those learning opportunities designed to help employees to grow. Anyways education is common to all employees.

The education is more important for managers and executives rather than low cadre workers. An employee undergoing training is presumed to have had some formal education. Development provides knowledge about business environment. Hence we can say that Training is offered to operatives. CEOs are known to attend refresher courses conducted by business schools. Making them Self-starters Committed Motivated Result oriented Sensitive to environment Understand use of power Creating self awareness Develop inspiring leadership styles Instill zest for excellence Teach them about effective communication To subordinate their functional loyalties to the interests of the organization Difference between Training and Development Training Training is skills focused Training is presumed to have a formal education Training needs depend upon lack or deficiency in skills Trainings are generally need based Training is a narrower concept focused on job related skills Training may not include development Training is aimed at improving related efficiency and performance What are the Training Inputs?

Trainers can be informed about the broader needs in advance Trainers Perception Gaps can be reduced between employees and their supervisors Trainers can design course inputs closer to the specific needs of the participants Diagnosis of causes of performance deficiencies can be done Methods of Training On the Job Trainings: These methods are generally applied on the workplace while employees is actually working. Advantages of On-the-Job Training: It is directly in the context of job It is often informal It is most effective because it is learning by experience Following are the on-the-job methods.

Following are some of the simulation methods of trainings a. It is not focused on employees own job responsibilities. Following are the off-the-job methods.

The objective is to give a comprehensive awareness about the jobs of different departments.

Notes pdf hr mba

Advantage — employee gets to know how his own and other departments also function. No flexibility for different audience. Advantages of Off-the-Job Training: Trainers are usually experienced enough to train It is systematically organized Efficiently created programs may add lot of value Disadvantages of Off-the-Job Training: It is not directly in the context of job It is often formal It is not based on experience It is least expensive Trainees may not be highly motivated It is more artificial in nature Off the Job Training Methods 1.

Disadvantages — One-way communication. It is least expensive Trainees are highly motivated It is free from artificial classroom situations Disadvantages of On-the-Job Training: Trainer may not be experienced enough to train It is not systematically organized Poorly conducted programs may create safety hazards On the Job Training Methods 1.

Generally fresh graduates are put under the experienced employee to learn the functions of job. It is not learning by practice. Internships and Assistantships: An intern or an assistants are recruited to perform a specific time-bound jobs or projects during their education.

Likely to boredom. Cost per trainee is low. Case Studies: It is a written description of an actual situation and trainer is supposed to analyze and give his conclusions in writing. It may consist a part of their educational courses. Disadvantages — Low popularity. No authentic feedback mechanism. Interdepartmental coordination can be improved. It is One-way communication. Job Coaching: The cases are generally based on Job Instruction: It may consist an instruction or directions to perform a particular task or a function.

Disadvantage — It may become too much for an employee to learn. No feedback mechanism. Job Rotation: In this method. Advantage — It can be used for large groups.

It may be in the form of orders or steps to perform a task. Classroom Lectures: It is a verbal lecture presentation by an instructor to a large audience.

It can be done using Films. Advantages — Wide range of realistic examples. Employees basic talents may remain under utilized. Off the Job Trainings: These are used away from work places while employees are not working like classroom trainings. Employers and B Schools operating distantly 7. Creations of effective training evaluation system Advantages — increased ability to empathize. Disadvantages — Scope for learning is less. Advantages — Self paced. Inadequate Training budget 3. Disadvantages — High cost.

Comprehensive and Systematic Approach 4. Programmed Instructions: Provided in the form of blocks either in book or a teaching machine using questions and Feedbacks without the intervention of trainer.

Laboratory Training Barriers to Effective Training: These are generally used in MDP. There is no preplanned agenda and it is instant. Large scale poaching of trained staff 5. Disadvantage — Participants may resort to their old habits after the training. Continuous and Ongoing approach 5. Education degrees lack skills 4.

Promoting Learning as Fundamental Value 6. Attitudinal change is another result. Computer Aided Instructions: It is extension of PI method. Lack of Management commitment 2. Advantages — Provides accountabilities.

It is an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data. Management Commitment 2. It is more emotional orientation and improves interpersonal relationships. Non-coordination from workers due to downsizing trends 6. Role Plays: Here trainees assume the part of the specific personalities in a case study and enact it in front of the audience.

Sensitivity Trainings: This is more from the point of view of behavioral assessment. Wrong perceptions of employees What is the difference between induction and orientation?

Induction referred to formal training programs that an employee had to complete before they could start work Orientation was the informal information giving that made the recruit aware of the comfort issues. Prepare for receiving new employee 2. To make new employees feel at home in new environment 2. Individual or Group 3. Daily Work Routine 2. To remove their inadequacies about new peers 4. To remove their anxiety about new workplace 3. Formal or Informal 2.

To remove worries about their job performance 5. Demanding tasks where failure chances are high 6. Importance of Jobs to the organization 4. To provide them job information. Overloaded with paperwork 4. Employee thrown into action soon 7. Completion of Paperwork Problems of Orientations 1. Determine information new employee wants to know 3. Determine how to present information 4. Given menial tasks and discourage interests 5. Organization Profile 3.

Busy or Untrained supervisor 2. Detailed Orientation Presentations Purpose of Orientation 1. Too much information 3. Multi-skilling of course works best with more advanced skilled workers because their individual skills levels are developed enough where they can fluidly transition from one skill to the next without degradation of a skills performance.

Until they are done the newcomer is on the payroll. The objective of this program is to gain total integration of skills. The CEO needs to know different things to the temporary concierge. The program requires the individual to demonstrate competence in a number of different skills and this competence is measured and assessed on the job.

Other subjects may be incorporated with refresher training for current staff. Perhaps a buddy system on the job may be the best way to deal with these. Perhaps some can wait until there are groups of people who have started in the last few months. How long should the induction process take? It starts when the job ad is written. This may take some creative thinking.

We only employ new people one at a time. It is assignment or reassignment of an employee to a new or different job.

The first hour on day one is a critical component. If you are multi-skilling and a great percentage of your workers are having problems executing one of the skills effectively it is probably a good signal you need to go back to basics with that skill and pull it out of the multi-skilling sequences.

What levels of staff need induction? After that it is a matter of just in time training. Another advantage of multi-skilling is the positive effect of what is called "contextual learning". There are some issues. The math is often amazingly simple. Contextual learning involves discovery and improvement from two skills. The disadvantages of multi-skilling include the obvious danger of moving on to quickly toward advanced skills and combinations without sufficiently drilling basic skills.

The consequence is that we become "partially skilled". The greater the number of partial skills we develop. Structure and Technology External Forces of Change: Who can bring about change?

While there is a great desire to learn quickly I think this is one of the reason we are seeing better skilled from some of the best workers. Alterations in —People.

You can bring it about yourself or it can come in ways Why Change Management? You can bring the change about yourself or it can come in ways that give you little choice about its what.

Notes pdf hr mba

When faced with market-driven urgency. Successful firms recognize change. If you wish to succeed in this rapidly changing new world "you must learn to look on change as a friend. Employee counseling Time management programs What is creativity?

Combining new ideas in unique ways or associating ideas in unusual ways What is innovation? Turning creative ideas into useful products. Swinging too far to revolutionary extreme may create "an organizational culture that is so impatient.

When choosing between evolutionary change and revolutionary action. Very successful ones anticipate it. Everything that exists is getting old.

Fighting against change can slow it down or divert it. The strategic selection of the best strategic positioning in the playing field. In situations when timing is critical to success.

What's more. Evolutionary change. More Today's World Realities The magnitude of today's environmental. More Starting with Yourself The best place to start change is with yourself. To achieve effective personal change. If you want other people to change. If you cannot change your environment. More Leading Change While you cannot predict the future. Advocates for change are greeted with suspicion. It's a very interesting and exciting world.

Anticipation means expecting. While the economy is shifting and innovation is rampant. All you really need to start applying these skills for your business is a small head start. The ability to anticipate is one of the key ingredients of efficient speed and change management. As current products are becoming obsolete faster than ever. Riding the wave of change is becoming the most important part of the business.

The Silicon Valley slogan "Eat lunch and you are lunch" is more than a reflection of increasingly intense work ethic. When seeking to change an organization.. Most people don't like change because they don't like being changed.

If whatever you do doesn't work.. The best leaders strike first by taking the offensive against economic cycles. They discover the most effective ways for achieving significant change. Your change program needs to be explicitly built around these challenges.

The old ways of management no longer work and will never work again. When change fails to occur as planned. Managing Organizational Change Success in business doesn't come from feeling comfortable.

Anyone who thinks that it's harmless to make exceptions for a few people and shift resources to accommodate poor performers is missing an important point. In today's technology-driven world. Behavioral Change The challenge and the shape of an organization's behavioral change program depend on the corporate culture and the targeted behaviors that need to be changed.

Invite their opinion regarding critical issues such as the direction you should be headed. The sequence of the eight segments. Motivating Employees to Embrace Change You have a choice of instruments to motivate your people to embrace change. They will share responsibility for plan management. In any case. You may also encourage employee feedback on where and how the company can take corrective action and reward employees for their contribution.

To create a seamless bridge from the vision to action. The challenge is to keep a step ahead of changing market conditions. Stay laser-focused on the methods that will drive your business unit towards its stated objectives. The wheel of business evolution is a framework and set of tools. Performance-incentive levers are especially useful in driving those who lack direction or initiative.

Successful change requires leadership. Making Quick Decisions through Establishing Guiding Principles Fast companies that have demonstrated the ability to sustain surge and velocity all have established sets of guiding principles to help them make quick decisions.

Abandoning theoretical and politically correct 'values' and bureaucratic procedures in favor of a practical. Even worse. Only one question will need to be asked of any proposed course of action: Does it fit our guiding principles?

The performance is measured against such factors as job knowledge. The second definition is more focused on behaviors as a part of assessment because behaviors do affect job results. Assessment should be confined to past as well as potential performance also. Promotions 2. Training and Development 4. Evaluation of HR Programs 8. Formal System. It is a developmental tool used for all round development of the employee and the organization. Compensation reviews 5. Confirmations 3. Competency building 6.

Improve communication 7. Appraise the performance 5. Each scales ranges from excellent to poor. Using social processes. Rating Scales: Rating scales consists of several numerical scales representing job related performance criterions such as dependability. Design an appraisal program 4. Coaching Frequent Low Grouped. Each of the methods is effective for some purposes for some organizations only. Advantages — Adaptability. Control oriented. Evaluative Occasional High Individualistic Modern. Objectives definition of appraisal 2.

Problem solving Facilitative. None should be dismissed or accepted as appropriate except as they relate to the particular needs of the organization or an employee. The total numerical scores are computed and final conclusions are derived. Performance Interviews 6. Use data for appropriate purposes 7. Broadly all methods of appraisals can be divided into two different categories. Systems Appraisals Systematic. Job expectations establishment 3. Documentary Directional.

Identify opportunities variables 8. Observation of actual behaviors not possible. Advantages — Evaluations are based on actual job behaviors. Advantages — Eliminates Disadvantages — Assumption of normal distribution. Disadvantages — Tests may suffer if costs of test development or administration are high. Feedback to the assessee is given only in case of an adverse entry.

Disadvantages — Suffers from distortions inherent in most rating techniques. The system is highly secretive and confidential.

The tests may be written or an actual presentation of skills. The rater is supposed to say. Advantages — Useful for managerial level promotions. Critical Incidents Method: The approach is focused on certain critical behaviors of employee that makes all the difference in the performance. Disadvantages — Outsider is generally not familiar with employees work environment. It is assumed that the performance is conformed to normal distribution.

They are said to be behaviorally anchored. The rater is forced to make a choice. Advantage — Tests may be apt to measure potential more than actual performance.

This is based on the test of knowledge or skills. Confidential Records: Mostly used by government departments. Supervisors as and when they occur record such incidents.

Advantages — economy. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales: Essay Method: In this method the rater writes down the employee description in detail Forced Distribution Method: Under this method.

Advantages — helps overcome rating errors. Disadvantages — Statements may be wrongly framed. Field Review Method: Disadvantage is that it is highly subjective and ratings can be manipulated because the evaluations are linked to HR actions like promotions etc. Here the rater only does the reporting or checking and HR department does the actual evaluation.

HR department does actual assessment. Disadvantages — Negative incidents can be prioritized. Disadvantages — Raters biases. Forced Choice Method: The series of statements arranged in the blocks of two or more are given and the rater indicates which statement is true or false.

Here the report is given in the form of Annual Confidentiality Report ACR and may record ratings with respect to following items. Tests must be reliable and validated to be useful. Rater is compelled to distribute the employees on all points on the scale. Advantages — Absence of personal biases because of forced choice. An assessment center is a central location where managers may come together to have their participation in job related exercises evaluated by trained observers.

This approach is slow and costly and may be useful for bright young members who may have considerable potential.

Disadvantages — Not applicable to all jobs. MBO process goes as under. Cost to keep employee. Advantage — It is more useful for managerial positions. The usual techniques used may be ranking methods and paired comparison method. These are collection of different methods that compare performance with that of other co-workers.

Management By Objectives: It means management by objectives and the performance is rated against the achievement of objectives stated by the management. Cost Accounting Method: Here performance is evaluated from the monetary returns yields to his or her organization. The number of comparisons may be calculated with the help of a formula as under. Assessment Centers: Disadvantages — It its highly dependent upon the writing skills of rater and most of them are not good writers.

Advantage — It is extremely useful in filing information gaps about the employees that often occur in a better-structured checklist. They may get confused success depends on the memory power of raters. Superior ranks his worker based on merit. Disadvantages — Costs of The characteristics assessed in assessment center can be assertiveness.

However how best and why best are not elaborated in this method. It is more focused on observation of behaviors across a series of select exercises or work samples. It is done in the form of in-depth interviews. It is easy to administer and explanation. Psychological Appraisals: These appraisals are more directed to assess employees potential for future performance rather than the past one.

Assessees are requested to participate in in-basket exercises. Hence it is more dependent upon cost and benefit analysis. It is more focused on employees emotional. In this method each employee is rated with another employee in the form of pairs.

However quality of these appraisals largely depend upon the skills of psychologists who perform the evaluation. Documentation should be consistent among the raters.

Multiple raters may be less adept at providing balanced and objective feedback. Those who are not selected for this also may get affected. Dimensions must be assigned weight to reflect relative importance in performance score Ethics of Documentation of Results 1.

Also reliability. Solid performers may feel suffocated in simulated situations. Standards formally communicated to all employees Freedom to review performance appraisal results Formal appeal process about ratings and judgments Written instructions and training to raters All personal decision makers should be aware of anti-discrimination laws.

Besides Use of more than one rater is desirable to reduce biases. Ethics of Raters 1. Written documentation of extreme ratings should be maintained 3. However on the negative side. A thoroughly written record of evidence leading to termination should be maintained 2. In fact anyone who has useful information on how an employee does a job may be one of the appraisers.

Advantages — well-conducted assessment center can achieve better forecasts of future performance and progress than other methods of appraisals. Content based on job analysis Traits based appraisals should be avoided Objectively verifiable data should be used Constraints on performance beyond control should be prevented Specific job related dimensions to be used rather than single or global dimensions. The rater must have opportunity to observe ratees first hand and review important ratee performance products.

Ethics of Contents 1.

Related Documents


Copyright © 2019 vitecek.info. All rights reserved.