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Velhinha doc poema. Um bom poema. Tudo claro. Tenho andado fraco doc poema. Tarde de vento doc poema. Um homem com uma dor doc poema. The position is at the beginning of the ode. For these images see Bernard ; Bernardini ; and Steiner Interesting remarks on the relationship of the ode to its historical and political circumstances in Athanassaki The poet accumulates many mythical references to Theban heroines — in the opening part- and heroes —in the end-, and develops more extensively in the central part the myth of Orestes.

Yet, the majority of these mythical themes are charged of Apollonian traits. The list of Theban heroines summoned in the in- vocation at the beginning of the ode, with a gradually increasing length of the syntactical units, includes Semele, Ino-Leucothea, and Alcmena, who are invited to join Melia at the local sanctuary of the Ismenion.

Melia is an Oceanid, who gave two children to Apollo, Tenerus and Ismenus, the eponym of the sanctuary men- tioned here and of the local river! Tenerus is a prophet and is usually linked to the sanctuary of Apollo Ptoeus! Pindar mentions Melia in other three poems: Moreover, this vengeance enhances the justice due, inside the genos, by a son towards his father, something particularly relevant in the frame of an epinicion in which the winner is a young, whose father is also praised in the same ode —and, by the way, his name is Pythonikos!

Once again the genealogical element becomes important in the context of these laudatory songs. This is undoubtedly the Apollonian ode par excellence, and for very understandable reasons. The local myths concerning the origins of the territory and the foundation 28 Important commentaries: Young , Bernardini However, the lyric poets place it in Lace- daemon Stesich.

Apollo took Cyrene from Thessaly to Lybia and their marriage was presided by Aphrodite. This myth is anticipated in a few lines at the beginning and then developed with details concerning the genealogy of Cyrene! The ode is then manifestly full of Apollonian motifs. First, by means of the Apollonian origins of land and city; second, by the role played in it of love, beauty, youth, and the link between games and marriage, both in the mythical — starting by Apollo himself — and the actual world!

The Theban lines are , and include the praise of Heracles, Iolaos and Iphicles. They have been the subject of much discussion and some scholars have even proposed that the ode had been composed for a performance in Thebes, what seems to me innecessary. Then Pindar develops a real hymn to Zeus , including a Typhon- omachia, that allows him to tie Zeus-Typhon-Aetna the mountain and Hieron-Vic- tory-Aetna the re-founded city of Catane.

It is as if the Delphic landscape would form a contrast to the Sicilian mountain. This part leads to a new Apollonian invocation, that enumerates the main Panhellenic cult centres of Apollo: As for the rest of the ode, there are actually no more specific Apollonian motifs, but it must be highlighted that the opening of the poem marks in some way the subsequent development.

First, the myth selected by Pindar! The reason for this link is the local tradition that among the Argonauts was the ancestor of the Battiadai, Euphamos, through his union with a Lemnian Malache, according to the scholia.

Race Very important the commentary by Braswell For the organization of the narratives see Calame This oracular! In the first strophe we are told that the Pythian priestess prophesied the colonization of Libya by Aristoteles-Battos.

This part of the narra- tives is closed, in a first partial ring-composition, by a new mention of the Pythian oracle, with the additional detail of the triple salutation to Battos by the priestess and the spontaneous nature of the prediction — i. The oracular constituent is equally important at different moments of the story, and other Apollonian motifs are interspersed. First, it had been established by the gods and predicted to Pelias see: As Jason arrives in the agora the citizens have doubts on his identity, and the list of possible candidates discarded is formed by Apollo himself, because of his beauty, the Aloadai and Tityos, because of their physical qualities!

A good part of the account is filled by episodes at Iolcos: See that Tityos belong to Parnassian mythology. Otos, Ephialtes and Tityos were killed by the gods for having tried to rape goddesses —Leto in the case of Tityos.

Phrixos appeared to Pelias in a prostagmatic! As usual, Pelias consulted the Delphic oracle, which ordered that an expedition to the Kolchis must be made! In the case of Apollo, the text presents a problem of interpretation due to the context and other parallels. The possible solutions proposed so far are: It is not easy to adopt a decision, but it must be emphasized that the context makes it difficult to discard the genealogical link.

There is a clear variatio in the enumeration of gods and their sons: The audience is important: But see Braswell At this point Pindar uses ring-composition to connect this final part with the initial series of predictions.

The Delphic oracle sanctioning the colonization of Libya, and anticipated by Medea! Pythian 5 BC , for Arcesilas of Cyrene. Composed for the same victor as the previous one, though without including a mythical narrative and centred in a more direct praise of Arcesilas and of the charioteer Carrhotos, this ode has no shortage of Apollonian motifs, most of them related either to Delphi and its monuments or to the past of Cyrene and its cultic reality!

However, as far as I know, there is no genealogy of Orpheus that could reinforce this interpretation. After this historical part, the poet connects with the local cult of Apollo Carneios! The poet links the contemporary processions in honour of Apollo, the old sanctuaries of the city, and the paved sacred road, to that Trojan past!

This is indeed a deep immersion in the Apollonian nature of local traditions and rites, which bounds past and present in a very tight way. Finally, the god appears again some lines before the close of the ode, when the poet returns to the victory and the actual celebration: Pythian 8 BC for Aristomenes of Aegina Much has been said about the possible historical circumstances surrounding the ode, concerning the relationship of Aegina to Athens, but this question is not pertinent for the present analysis!

What is significant for my purpose is, once again, the choice by the poet of elements that strongly bound Apollo, Delphi and prophecy to the victor and his homeland. In this case, it was quite natural for Pindar to do that, because of the important links between Aegina and Delphi, as can be verified by the fasci- nating Paean 6! And this mention facilitates the transition to the celebration of the victory, since Apollo is presented as kindly welcoming the victor crowned with laurel!

The mention of the diviner presupposes a consultation by the participants in the second expedition against Thebes, that of the so-called Epigonoi, commanded again by Adrastos. It begins by an assessment of the transmission of qualities from father to son — an important motif in an epinician contest! The power of the diviner — who is now dead but responding from his manteion!

The prophetic language includes periphrastic constructions to describe the subjects of the predicted facts: The death of his son — Aegialeos — is announced first 87 Exhaustive analysis and commentary by Pfeijffer See now the interesting remarks concerning the purpose of the ode in Athanassaki See ll.

The mention of Alcman leads now to another linkage with the actuality of the song and to a new mantic motive! First, the poet says that he is glad to dedicate now his song to Alcman — he calls this part a hymn — who, being his neighbour and guardian of his possessions, met him in his way to Delphi and uttered prophe- cies!

If it this allusion what has motivated its inclusion among 95 This is the whole passage See a good summary of the opinions in Burnett , n. Its consolatory nature is beyond doubt! Then the ode shifts to a series of thoughts involv- ing the poet and his good wishes towards Hieron and how he would like to soften Hieron suffering sending him a new Asclepius and a song of victory, as in past times Finally, he focuses on thoughts concerning human nature and its limits, and how the gods give evils and good alternatively, as can be seen in the stories of Peleus and Cadmos He closes the ode by emphasizing the power of song to preserve the glory, as can be proved with Nestor and Sarpedon and the effects of epic poetry I would like to emphasize that, although this is not a Pythian ode composed to celebrate a precise victory, it is important to realize that, at the moment of sending to Hieron a consolatory piece, he has chosen an Apollonian orientation and that the only allusion to a contest included in the ode evokes Delphic victories.

But what I argue is that it is precisely the consolatory nature that is enhanced by means of a particular laudatory tone. The first term is given by Pindar only to dynastic rulers the other example is Telesicrates? The second, ",9: The use of this term for Hieron could remind of his founding activity in Catania Etna.

Yet, an intention of enhancing the great power of Hieron, softened by its coupling with ",9: Neither Apollonian nor Pythian?: Pythian 2 doubtful date! However, the remaining features of the ode are not only inappropriate in a Pythi- an ode, but even anti-Apollonian, as my subsequent enumeration of elements will show.

It is then perfectly understandable that since the IVth century BC the clas- sification of this ode were a controversial issue! The Alexandrian grammarians, the authors of ancient scholia and many scholars have looked for alternative possi- ble victories or even types of song, instead of a Pythian victory ode.

Yet, I want to emphasize the possibility of seeing in Pythian 2 not only a simple victory song! The particular character of this ode can be detected in a series of features that I will succinctly enumerate now! The ode confirms that Hieron has usually the protection and assistance of the goddess See a good summary of the proposals concerning the nature and date of the ode in See a good summary in Cingano , who concludes that either Delphi or Olympia would be the most prob- able.

According to my proposal, the Delphic victory could be discarded. Cingano It must be taken into consideration the possibility of locating this victory at the Poseidonian festival of Onchestos, men- tioned in fr. I refer to this work for more precisions. See now Brown These words are no clue to guess a victory place. Nor seems it to be the declaration of the poet that he is coming from Thebes bearing the song!

The next particular feature of the ode is his distinction either of two different varieties of ode or, alternatively, of two different parts of the ode! However, neither of these interpretations is fully satisfactory, and it remains the suspicion that perhaps the poet introduces here a rhetorical apology, not devoid of humour, for having given a military and exhortative tone to this part of the ode, more suitable for a different context, like that of the homonymous Spartan song!

But perhaps the most surprising trait of the poem is the presence of abundant Archilochean elements, what arises the suspicion that the mention of Archilochus the blamer in lines !

Moreover, these Archilochean features are more evident if we focus on the so-called Cologne Epode fr. The parallels I see are, first, in the election of themyth — Ixion —, which incorporates such themes as the confrontation between father-in-law and son-in- -law! I surmise that it must be understood that Hieron is assisted by the two deities and he calls upon Poseidon every time he is preparing his chariot for competition.

After this praise begins the apology, with a captatio benevolentiae ll. There is also an interesting intertextuality connected with this myth. In Il. The action described in the Cologne Epode is to be located, with a high degree of probability, in the local shrine of Hera. We have then a double evocation: Other series of connections can be detected at the linguistic level.

The clearest examples are the following: But this is not all. There are other possible, perhaps less evident, links between this poem and Archilochean poetry.

The resemblance is perceived also at the gnomic level: Pindar claims his fidelity towards his friends and hatred against his enemies, comparing himself to a wolf! The list could be enlarged! As a representative of the poetry of praise, and with great subtlety, he makes use of the means of blaming poetry, and transforms them in an antidoton — as if it were a magical weapon —, aimed to highlight Hieron qualities!

For more details I refer to my article of The particularity of the accumulation of animal parallels has been analyzed by Bell The choice of myth.

The parallels and links between the homeland of the victor and the victory. This aim is attained through different procedures: The role of Apollonian attributes or spheres of action, such as divination — predictions, sanctuaries, diviners- and music.

Additionally, the analysis of Apollonian elements can be applied as a test to odes unduly grouped in Antiquity as Pythian: Pythian 3 is a fully Apollonian ode, but it does not commemorate a victory, whereas Pythian 9 is an epinicion, but its features contradict a Delphic victory. Poetic Representations, Politics, and Ideology. Athanassaki, L. Martin, J. Apolline Politics and Poetics International Symposium. Archaic and Classical Choral Song. Performance, Politics, and Dissemina- tion.

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