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Bukowski seems to use language and to create images in his poetry in a conscious way through different figures of speech, manipulating his readers through his confessional tone. Observing the third, fourth and fifth lines of the poem: I suck on her upper lip her cunt her soul We have an example of climax, starting physically by sucking her mouth, her vagina and finally spiritually, by sucking her soul. We have a movement in the scene, a series of words in an increasing order of magnitude.
Although it is common for Bukowski to use vulgar register, as cunt for instance, some stylistic choices emerge from his writings. Highlighting these two different words used by Bukowski, cunt and soul, according to Oxford English Dictionary cunt is known as a very offensive word. Thus, cunt is pointed out as an obscene word, about the obscene registers Hunt , p. To enact social transgression and a kind of hyperrealism, obscene language fetishizes certain words related to sex; the obscene word substitutes for the body part in question but, in the process, acquires the status of a fetish.
He used two words with different categories. However, these words are complementing one another. The word soul comes impacting and suggesting an elevation of the sexual relation sacralizing it, Bukowski also appealed to a metaphysic relation between the characters in the verse. Observing the aforementioned stanzas of the poem, we have noticed a recurrent characteristic, one of the greatest features in Bukowski's work. The author uses a resource through his writing that gives us a sensation that we are part of the text.
The word projected by Bukowski suggests us images appealing to our sensorial perception there is nothing vague or foggy about his verses. He wants his reader to take part of the action; he wants to appeal to voyeurism.
According to Paganine , p. In hypotyposis, more than words, what counts are the images they suggest. Perhaps this quality of demanding from the reader an evocative visual involvement from the words has the consequence of approaching the reader of the narrative, giving the reader the feeling of observing, of watching the drama of the characters through successive frames. This aspect can be better observed in the next stanza: Alliteration was achieved through using successive words with the same consonant L.
Simile suggests a comparison between two objects. Considering the Brazilian Portuguese translation made by Pedro Gonzaga, in a general overview it follows some similarities. He chose the letter D to replace the effect of L achieving as close as possible a similar result. The women in these two poems have no subjectivity, no voice, and no desire. They have been alienated from the language game, and they are no subjects of their desire.
In the middle of his description what called our attention was the fact that when he had a sexual relation with her, the speaker thought: In this verse, the speaker used a complex metaphor to her sexual organ comparing it to a grave, at the same time to death.
Meener , p. Bataille , p.
The speaker suggests that he is having sex with death itself. On the other hand, the old lady is rejuvenated by sex, by pleasure. In this poem, sex is salvation. Despite all his vulgar lexical choices the sexual relation emerges to save them from what they are.
In the last stanza, she is denying her advanced age by keeping her teeth in her mouth. According to Online Etylomogy dictionary, obscene adj. Therefore, in other words, something is clear which offends morality by means of sexual representation. Bukowski puts death in the same perspective as life. He used a metaphor, always contrasting two complex images. According to Moraes , p. Eroticism means a fusion, a suppression of limits. Through his lexical choices, Bukowski surpasses social limits, demonstrating moral transgression.
These choices present a different perspective from what Bukowski said in his verses. Comparing the fragments: On literary translation Translation is a decision-making process as well as a communicative process.
It is a decision because there is a range of alternative words from which the translator needs to choose for the best result. Translation theory tends to be normative, to instruct translators on the OPTIMAL solution; actual translation words, however, is pragmatic, the translator resolves for that one of the possible solutions which promises a maximum of effect with a minimum of effort.
However, poetry has been translated at least since the Romans with varied outcomes, and it is through translation that humankind has got in touch with all kinds of texts from different civilizations and times. Thus defining translation as a search for equivalents and believing that translation of poetry is impossible is denying the very history of literature.
Considering Bassnett , p. The word needs translation, of course, but not so mechanically. In translating Bukowski we must be aware of the vocabulary used, mainly because in this specific context, it comes from the streets, the author expresses himself through oral register.
The function of a text also needs to be considered, since we are not speaking in simple word replacement. The words Bukowski used convey strong essence and have great relevance to the text, apparently. Considering the inevitable loss of information in a translation, it can be said that they are not much different from the loss in an intralingual communication process. As in all communication processes some kind of loss of information occurs, it is natural that it happens in translations as well.
Words are more than small parts or units of a language. Together, they are a code, and words have their own behavior in language, and more importantly in literature. This is the reason why translators need to be aware of their role as cross-cultures mediators.
According to Susan Bassnett , p. The untranslatability, on the linguistic level, from original phrase to the target language. The absence of a social convention in the target language.
The range of existent expressions in the target language, answering the class, statute, age, gender of speaker. Consider the phrase signification in its particular context, a moment of high tension in dramatic texts. The need to replace, in the target language, the invariant core of the phrase in the source language in both reference systems the particular system of the text and the cultural system in which the text appears.
But once the translator moves away from close linguistic equivalence, the problems of determining the exact nature of the level of equivalence aimed for begin to emerge BASSNETT, , p. We believe that translation is a clear decision process, sometimes the translator comes to a better decision, sometimes he does not, but the translator needs to consider all his linguistic possibilities. Bassnett , p. How could it be done as separate tasks? Conclusion All considered, it is necessary to understand the difficult role of being a translator and the great responsibility it encompasses.
It is important to mention that translation needs to consider many issues, but the most important one is literature itself. Another aspect is the author's lexical choices.
If we have a great range of choices all of them need to be considered, trying to aim at legibility. Translation is a process involving source and target languages, source and target cultures, knowledge about the author's life, and the theme itself.
In the case of this particular translation, we had the opportunity to understand that there is no right or wrong, but nuances of register that could potentially jeopardize the effect of a piece of work. Livros do Brasil, Translation studies. New York: O erotismo. Fernando Scheibe]. Belo Horizonte: Um vagabundo celestial. Love is a dog from hell. HarperCollins, Pedro Conzaga]. Porto Alegre: Literary Theory: A very short introduction. Oxford, HUNT, Lynn. Hendra, Translation as a decision process.
The translation Studies Reader. London and New York: Routledge, Representations of the Female in the Work of Charles Bukowski. Make default search. How Ecosia works. About us.
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