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This dictionary includes the following key features: Over 15, words and expressions in the Mandarin Chinese language Fully updated with recent vocabulary and commonly used Chinese slang Clear, user friendly layout with headwords in blue English, Romanized script hanyu pinyin , and Chinese characters hanzi for every entry Other books from this bestselling series you might enjoy include: Browse more videos.
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The publication of Morrison's dictionary attracted the attention of scholars worldwide, and Part II was reprinted from until The revised preface says the second part "has been generally commended by experienced Sinologues as the most perfect and useful of the whole" Morrison Morrison's lexicographical legacy is reflected in two facts: Morrison's Chinese dictionary became the prototype for other 19th-century works.
Medhurst claimed this was an original translation based on the Kangxi Zidian , but it was in fact just an edited abridgment of Morrison's dictionary, a "plagiarism rather than an original compilation" Yang The preface says that although many similar Chinese-English dictionaries by Medhurst, Elijah Coleman Bridgman , and others were published in small numbers, they became "very scarce, while the number of students has increased tenfold", and learners of Chinese relied on reprints of Morrison Williams Williams explicitly identified "Dr.
Medhurst's translation of the K'anghi Tsz'tien" as a more important source for his own work than Morrison's dictionary Williams Giles praised Morrison as "the great pioneer" of Chinese-English lexicography, but criticized his failure to mark aspiration. He said Medhurst "attempted aspirates" but omitted some and wrongly inserted others.
While Williams correctly marked aspiration and tones, Giles says "he provided too few phrases, and mistranslated a large number of those" Giles Ironically, Yang's textual analysis finds that Giles's dictionary is more closely linked to Williams's than to Morrison's Yang Morrison's Chinese dictionary introduced a systematic transliteration system that was used for over four decades until it was replaced by Thomas Francis Wade 's romanization scheme in ; that became the basis for the Wade-Giles system of , which was widely used and still survives alongside pinyin romanization.
Morrison's system was almost forgotten after being replaced by Wade romanization, but James Legge adopted it virtually unchanged into the Legge romanization used in his Chinese Classics series Legge — Coblin Robert Morrison's dictionary is still in use two hundred years after its publication. For example, the American sinologist W. South Coblin analyzed Morrison's romanization of Mandarin for clues about the pronunciation of early 19th-century standard Chinese Coblin The title pages of the dictionary's parts give two versions of the full title.
Each part of the dictionary is a complete and independent unit in itself Wu and Zheng It was a Chinese-to-English dictionary, organized by the radical system employed by the Kangxi Dictionary. These radicals are the initial or major graphic components of Chinese characters , ranging from 1 to 17 strokes.
Morrison acknowledged his debt to the Kangxi Dictionary in his introduction to Volume I, saying it "forms the ground work" of Part I Morrison a: However, it also differed in significant ways.
Chinese scholars have found that the majority of the Kangxi dictionary's usage examples were taken from books before the 10th century and ignored vulgar forms and expressions.
Morrison also noticed this and chose examples better suited to his intended readership Yang For instance Wu and Zheng Morrison's dictionary also gives Chinese usage examples and quotations from a wide range of sources, including classical literature, law, medicine, novels, and numerous unidentified contemporary sources. His orthographic standard for the dictionary's "Radicals, and of the large Characters throughout the work," was said to have been "taken from an excellent Dictionary" Morrison A comparative study of its annotations confirms its influence, although this remained less marked than that of the Kangxi Dictionary Yang Philosophically, Morrison's dictionary departed from that ordered by the Kangxi Emperor by including not only the Confucian Four Books and Five Classics but many more items drawn from Taoist and Buddhist texts.
Essence, influence and spirit, together operated in a state of vacuum.
Their notions of the great One Cause of all things, are very fanciful and obscure Morrison a: The first quote is from Tao Te Ching Ch. The first volume of Part I and its two companion volumes were written in notably different styles. Volume I is "notoriously abundant" in encyclopedic examples and quotations, while the other two volumes of Part I just provide brief definitions and a few examples Yang When Morrison published the first volume of Part I in after 8 years of hard work, he realized that if he tried to compile the rest of the dictionary on such a comprehensive scale, he might not finish the dictionary in his lifetime.
He then changed course and rapidly published Part II in and His dictionary's alphabetically arranged Part II, with concise definitions and brief usage examples, proved to be more useful for learners of Chinese but lacked the rich quotations that made the first volume of Part I a model of an "encyclopedic and culturally rich bilingual dictionary" Yang They conclude that the dictionary's "richness of information was unprecedented" Wu and Zheng The regular script character and pronunciation are given alongside its small seal and cursive forms, followed by English translations, derived terms, and usage examples.
In this case, the word is glossed as "A way; a path; being at the head; the way that leads to; a thoroughfare on all sides. A principle. The principle from which heaven, earth, man, and all nature emanates. They made extensive use of it, with definitions often identical in both works Morrison Morrison claimed to have worked from Chen and Han's dictionary, rearranging its roughly 40, characters according to syllables instead of pronunciations and tones Morrison This work took about seven years Wu and Zheng Yang's comparative study of Parts I and II found, however, that the definitions of both are clearly based on the Kangxi Dictionary and reflect little content from original Wuche Yunfu Yang Part II is in two volumes.
In Volume I, the preface explains the dictionary's composition, purpose and orthography and the main section is a "Syllabic Dictionary" in which romanized Chinese words are collated in alphabetical order Morrison In Volume II, the first section contains a table of the Kangxi radicals , a radical-and-stroke index of the characters in Volume I, and an English-to-Chinese index of words that gives the character numbers in Volume I Morrison The second independent section "A Synopsis of Various Forms of the Chinese Character" giving the regular script , semi-cursive script , cursive script , clerical script , small seal script , and bronze script forms of various characters Morrison Part II of the dictionary contains 12, character entries, far fewer than the 47, entries in Part I Yang On the other hand, it continued to provide an estimated 20, examples and Chinese quotations in Chinese characters, accompanied with romanization and English translations, a vast improvement over earlier dictionaries without examples or Basilio Brollo's Chinese—Latin dictionaries, which presented its examples only in romanization Yang I was only published in Macao, but Vol.
The preface notes Morrison's intent: Its content is wide-ranging. When the opponent guesses the right number of fingers thrown out, at the instant he speaks, he wins, and the person throwing out his fingers has to drink as a forfeit. Unfortunately, Morrison transcribed the four tone distinctions of Middle Chinese rhyme dictionaries rather than those of modern Chinese.
By the time Morrison was composing his dictionary, the old level tone had begun dividing into modern Mandarin's high and rising tones; the old rising tone had begun dividing into the modern third and falling tones; [ citation needed ] and the entering tone had ceased to exist Norman Only the old departing tone continued to exist, as the modern falling tone.
In other dialects of Chinese, such as Cantonese , these tones developed separately [ citation needed ] but Morrison employed the Nanjing dialect of his era's Mandarin.
Morrison a: Part II also includes etymological glosses of the formation of the Chinese characters. Although these were often inaccurate guesses or folk etymologies , they helped students of Chinese as a second language to comprehend and memorize characters.
To raise the head and look upwards with expectation or desire Two subsequent centuries of study and archeological discoveries have greatly increased understanding of how Chinese characters originated. The English translation runs:. A way; a path; being at the head; the way that leads to; a thoroughfare on all sides.
The priuciple [ sic ] from which heaven, earth, man, and all nature emanates.
Correct, virtuous principles and course of action. Order and good principles in a government and country. A word; to speak; to say; the way or cause from or by which; to direct; to lead in the way.
To accord with or go in a course pointed out. The name of a country.