QA Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) Manual. Level 2 Submit PPAP to Hypertherm electronically (in one PDF file). • Approve. Revised Glossary to be consistent with the updates in the text PPAP refers to the following reference manuals: Advanced Product uality Planning & Control Plan. Production Part Approval Process (PPAP). Manual. Manitowoc Foodservice. Welbilt Boulevard. New Port Richey, FL Doc. No.
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There are five generally accepted PPAP submission levels. The PPAP manual contains detailed information, guidelines and sample documents useful for. Instructions for Completing a PPAP Submission . The Supplier should email a single PDF file consisting of the entire submission. Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) Manual Procedure Suppliers shall send all electronic data .xls,.pdf,.tif vitecek.info format) to the QE.
Increasing costs of equipment, materials and labor combined with expanding world markets have resulted in an increase of outsourced parts. Many component parts are being outsourced to overseas manufacturers. This often results in longer lead times and larger order quantities. Initially PPAP was utilized by the automotive and aerospace industries. PPAP is now being utilized by several industries to improve communication and provide quality products.
PPAP defines the approval process for new or revised parts, or parts produced from new or significantly revised production methods. The PPAP process consists of 18 elements that may be required for approval of production level parts. Not all of the elements are required for every submission. There are five generally accepted PPAP submission levels. The PPAP manual contains detailed information, guidelines and sample documents useful for completing the process requirements. The PPAP process verifies that the supplier understands all customer engineering design specifications and requirements and that the process is capable of consistently producing product meeting those requirements during an actual production run at the quoted production rate.
PPAP and other quality tools continue to be implemented into more industries; therefore it is important to gain an understanding of the PPAP requirements to remain competitive as a parts supplier. A PPAP is required for any new part submission as well as for approval of any change to an existing part or process.
The customer may request a PPAP at any time during the product life. This demands that the supplier must maintain a quality system that develops and documents all of the requirements of a PPAP submission at any time.
The process of completing a PPAP submission is fairly complex. This detailed process is a collection of key elements that must be completed to verify that the production process will produce a quality product. Not all of the elements are always required for a PPAP submission. The particular requirements of the PPAP are usually negotiated during the quoting process.
The PPAP submission requirements are normally divided into five classifications or levels, as follows:. The PPAP process is a detailed and lengthy process. The PPAP package includes documentation of various multiple cross-functional tools and documents the ability of the supplier to meet all customer requirements. PPAP provides customers adequate information to validate that all areas of the design and production processes have been reviewed thoroughly to ensure that only high quality products will be allowed to ship to the end customer.
Quality-One provides Knowledge, Guidance and Direction in Quality and Reliability activities, tailored to your unique wants, needs and desires. Contact Us Discover the Value! Where no special characteristics have been identified, the customer reserves the right to require demonstration of initial process capability on other characteristics.
The purpose of this requirement is to determine if the production process is likely to produce product that will meet the customer's requirements. The initial process study is focused on variables not attribute data. Assembly errors, test failures, surface defects are examples of attribute data, which is important to understand, but is not covered in this initial study. To understand the performance of characteristics monitored by attribute data will require more data collected over time.
Unless approved by the authorized customer representative, attribute data are not acceptable for PPAP submissions. C'k and Ppk are described below. Other methods more appropriate for certain processes or products may be substituted with prior approval from an authorized customer representative.
Initial process studies are short-term and will not predict the effects of time and variation in people, materials, methods, equipment, measurement systems, and environment. Even for these short-term studies, it is important to collect and analyze the data in the order produced using control charts.
The initial process study data requirements inay be replaced by longer- term historical data from the same or similar processes, with customer concurrence. For certain processes, alternative analytical tools such as individual and moving range charts inay be appropriate and permitted with prior approval from an authorized customer representative. The initial process study results are dependent on the purpose of the study, method of data acquisition, sampling, amount of data, demonstration of statistical control, etc.
See the Statistical Process Control reference manual for additional information in understanding the basic principles of statistical stability and process measures indices. For guidance on items listed below, contact the authorized customer representative. Cpk- The capability index for a stable process. CpIcis an indicator of process capability based on process variation within each subgroup of a set of data.
CpI,does not include the effect of process variability between the subgroups. Cplcis an indicator of how good a process could be if all process variation between subgroups was to be eliminated.
Therefore, use of Cpkalone may be an incomplete indicator of process performance. For more information, see the Statistical Process Control reference manual. Ppk- The performance index. The estimate of sigma is based on total variation all of individual sample data using the standard deviation [root mean square equation], "s".
Pplcis an indicator of process performance based on process variation throughout the full set of data. Unlike Cpk,Ppkis not limited to the variation within subgroups. However, Pplccannot isolate within subgroup variation froin between subgroup variation.
When calculated from the same data set, Cplcand Ppkcan be compared to analyze the sources of process variation. Initial Process Studies. The purpose of the initial process study is to understand the process variation, not just to achieve a specific index value. When historical data are available or enough initial data exist to plot a control chart at least individual samples , Cplccan be calculated when the process is stable. For Initial Process Studies involving more than one process stream, additional appropriate statistical methods or approaches may be required.
For bulk material, the organization should obtain customer agreement regarding the appropriate techniques for initial process studies, if required, in order to determine an effective estimate of capability. Contact the authorized customer representative for a review of the study results. Meeting the initial process study capability acceptance criteria is one of a number of customer requirements that leads to an approved PPAP submission. See 2. The organization shall identify, evaluate and, wherever possible, eliminate special causes of variation prior to PPAP submission.
The organization shall notify the authorized customer representative of any unstable processes that exist and shall submit a corrective action plan to the customer prior to any submission. For bulk materials, for processes with known and predictable special causes and output meeting specifications, corrective action plans may not be required by the customer. The above mentioned acceptance criteria 2.
When this is not true, using this analysis may result in unreliable information. These alternate acceptance criteria could require a different type of index or some method of transformation of the data. The focus should be on understanding the reasons for the non-normality e. Refer to the Statistical Process Control reference manual for further guidance.
Variation reduction efforts shall continue until the acceptance criteria are met, or until customer approval is received.
When an externallcoinmercial laboratory is used, the organization shall submit the test results on the laboratory letterhead or the normal laboratory report format. The name of the laboratory that performed the tests, the date s of the tests, and the standards used to run the tests shall be identified. A separate Appearance Approval Report AAR shall be completed for each part or series of parts if the productipart has appearance requirements on the design record.
Upon satisfactory completion of all required criteria, the organization shall record the required information on the AAR. The completed AAR. AARs complete with part disposition and authorized customer representative signature shall then accompany the PSW at the time of final submission based upon the submission level requested. See customer-specific requirements for any additional requirements. AAR typically applies only for parts with color, grain, or surface appearance requirements.
Certain customers may not require entries in all AAR fields. The master sample shall be identified as such, and shall show the customer approval date on the sample. The organization shall retain a master sample for each position of a multiple cavity die, mold, tool or pattern, or production process unless otherwise specified by the customer. NOTE When part size, sheer volume of parts, etc.
The purpose of the master sample is to assist in defining the production standard, especially where data is ambiguous or in insufficient detail to fully replicate the part to its original approved state. The organization shall document all released engineering design changes that have been incorporated in the checking aid at the time of submission. The organization shall provide for preventive maintenance of any checking aids for the life of the part see Glossary - "Active Part".
Measurement system analysis studies, e. Checking aids, etc. If checking aids are used for bulk materials, the organization should contact the authorized customer representative regarding this requirement. For bulk materials, applicable customer-specific requirements shall be documented on the Bulk Material Requirements Checklist.
A separate PSW shall be completed for each customer part number unless otherwise agreed to by the authorized customer representative. If production parts will be produced from more than one cavity, mold, tool, die, pattern, or production process, e. The specific cavities, molds, line, etc.
The organization shall verify that all of the measurement and test results show conformance with customer requirements and that all required documentation is available and, for Level 2, 3, and 4, is included in the submission as appropriate.
A responsible official of the organization shall approve the PSW and provide contact information. One warrant per customer part number can be used to summarize many changes providing that the changes are adequately documented, and the submission is in compliance with customer program timing requirements. The weight shall not include shipping protectors, assembly aides, or packaging materials. To determine part weight, the organization shall individually weigh ten randomly selected parts, calculate and report the average weight.
At least one part shall be measured from each cavity, tool, line or process to be used in product realization. This weight is used for vehicle weight analysis only and does not affect the approval process. Where there is no production or service requirement for at least ten parts, the organization should use the required number for calculation of the average part weight.
For bulk materials, the part weight field is not applicable. The organization shall notify the authorized customer representative of any planned changes to the design, process, or site. Examples are indicated in the table below see Table 3.
Upon notification and approval of the proposed change by the authorized customer representative, and after change implementation, submission is required unless otlienvise specified. Use of other construction or material For example, other constsuction as documented on than was used in the previously approved a deviation permit or included as a note on the part product design record and not covered by an engineering change as described in Table 3.
Production from new or modified tools This requirement only applies to tools, which due except perishable tools , dies, molds to their unique form or fimction, can be expected patterns, etc.
It is replacement tooling not meant to describe standard tools new or repaired , such as standard measuring devices, drivers manual or power , etc.
Rearrangement is defined as activity that changes the sequence of productlprocess flow from that documented in the process flow diagram including the addition of a new process.
Production from tooling and equipment Production process tooling and lor equipment transferred to a different plant site or from transferred between buildings or facilities at one or an additional plant site. Change of supplier for pasts, non- The organization is responsible for approval of equivalent materials, or services e.
Product produced after the tooling has For product that has been produced after tooling been inactive for volume production for has been inactive for twelve months or more: Notification is required when the part has had no change in active purchase order and the existing tooling has been inactive for volume production for twelve months or more.
The only exception is when the part has low volume, e. However a customer may specify certain PPAP requirements for service parts. Change in testlinspection method - new For change in test method, the organization should technique no effect on acceptance criteria have evidence that the new method has measurement capability equivalent to the old method.
Additionally, for bulk materials: These changes would normally be expected to have an effect on the performance of the product. New source of raw material from new or existing supplier. The organization shall review and update, as necessary, all applicable items in the PAP file to reflect the production process, regardless of whether or not the customer requests a formal submission.
The PPAP file shall contain the name of the authorized customer representative granting the waiver and the date. A new part or product i. Correction of a discrepancy on a previously Submission is required to correct any submitted part.
A "discrepancy" can be related to: Engineering change to design records, Submission is required on any engineering specifications, or materials for production change to the production productlpart design record. Additionally, for Bulk Materials: Process technology new to the organization, not previously used for this product. Level 1 Warrant only and for designated appearance items, an Appearance Approval Report submitted to the customer.
Level 2 Wai-sant with product samples and limited supporting data submitted to the customer. Level 3 Warrant with product samples and complete suppoi-ting data submitted to the customer.
Level 4 Warrant and other requirements as defined by the customer. Level 5 Warrant with product samples and complete supporting data reviewed at the organization's manufacturing location. See RetentiodSubmission Requirements Table 4. The organization shall use level 3 as the default level for all subinissions unless othenvise specified by the authorized customer representative. The authorized customer representative may identify a submission level, different from the default level, that is to be used with each organization, or organization and customer part number combiliation.
Different customer locations may assign different submission levels to the same organization manufacturing location. All of the f o r m referenced in this document may be replaced by computer-generated facsimiles. Acceptability of these facsimiles is to be confirmed with the authorized customer representative prior to the first submission. Table 4. Upon approval of the submission, the organization shall assure that future production continues to meet all customer requirements. For those organizations that have been classified as "self certifying" PPAP submission level 1 by a specific customer, submission of the required organization-approved documentation will be considered as customer approval unless the organization is advised otherwise.
The organization is therefore authorized to ship production quantities of the product, subject to releases from the customer scheduling activity. Interim Approval will only be granted when the organization has: PPAP re-submission is required to obtain a status of "approved. The organization is responsible for implementing containment actions to ensure that only acceptable material is being shipped to the customer. Note 2: Parts with a status of "Interim Approval" are not to be considered "Approved.
No additional shipments are authorized unless an extension of the interim approval is granted. For bulk materials, the organization shall use the "Bulk Material Interim Approval" form, or its equivalent see Appendix F. The submission shall be approved before production quantities may be shipped. Part Name and 2a. Customer Part Number: Engineering released finished end item part name and number. Org, Part Number: Part number defined by the organization, if any.
Shown on Drawing Number: The design record that specifies the customer part number being submitted. Show the change level and date of the design record. List all authorized engineering changes not yet incorporated in the design record but which are incorporated in the part. Safety andlor Government Regulation: Purchase Order Number: Enter the actual weight in kilograms to four decimal places unless otherwise specified by the customer.
If requested by the customer, enter the checking aid number, its change level and date. Show the name and code assigned to the manufacturing site on the purchase orderlcontract. Show the complete address of the location where the product was manufactured. For "Region," enter state, county, province, etc. Customer NameIDivision: Show the corporate name and division or operations group. Enter the buyer's name and code.
Enter the model year, vehicle name, engine, transmission, etc. Substances of Concern: If submitted via IMDS include: If submitted via other customer format, enter the date customer confirmation was received. Polymeric Parts Identification: Enter "Yes," "No," or "nla". Check the appropriate box es. For bulk materials, in addition to checking the appropriate box, check "Other" and write "Bulk Material" in the space provided.
Identify the submission level requested by the customer. Check the appropriate boxes for dimensional, material tests, performance tests, appearance evaluation, and statistical data.
Check the appropriate box. If "no," enter the explanation in "comments" below. For instruction, see 2. Enter the number of pieces manufactured during the significant production run. Enter the time in hours taken for the significant production run. Provide any explanatory comments on the Submission Results or any deviations from the Declaration. Attach additional information as appropriate. A responsible organization official, after verifying that the results show conformance to all customer requirements and that all required documentation is available, shall approve the declaration and provide Title, Phone Number, Fax Number, and E-mail address.
Part Name Cust. Part Number Shown on Drawing No. Are polymeric parts identified with appropriate I S 0 marking codes? Level 3 - Warrant with product samples and complete supporting data submitted to customer.
Level 5 - Warrant with product samples and complete supporting data reviewed at organization's manufacturing location. I further affirm that these samples were produced at the production rate of 24 ours 1 also certify that documented evidence of such compliance is on file and available for review.
FAX No. Weight kg I Checking Aid No. I Are polymeric parts identified with appropriate I S 0 marking codes? Level 2 - Warrant with product samples and limited supporting data submitted to customer. Level 4 - Warrant and other requirements as defined by customer. I also certify that documented evidence of such compliance is on file and available for review.
Is each Customer Tool properly tagged and numbered? Engineering released customer part number. Drawing Number: Use the number of the drawing on which the part is shown if different from the part number.
Part Name: Use the finished part name on the part drawing. Enter the code for specific buyer of part. Engineering change level and EIC date for this submission. Organization Name: Organization responsible for submission include supplier if applicable. Manufacturing Location: Location where part was manufactured or assembled. SupplierNendor Code: Customer-assigned code for organization location where the part was manufactured or assembled.
Reason for Submission: Check box es explaining the reason for this submission. List all first surface tools, graining source s , grain type s , and grain and gloss masters used to check part.
Pre-Texture Evaluation: To be completed by authorized customer representative not used by GM. Color Suffix: Use alphanumeric or numeric color identification. Tristimulus Data: List numerical colorimeter data of submission part as compared to the customer-authorized master.
Master Number: Enter alphanumeric master identification not used by Ford. Master Date: Enter the date on which the master was approved. Material Type: Identify first surface finish and substrate e. Material Source: Identify first surface and substrate suppliers. Visual assessment by customer. Color Shipping Suffix: Color part number suffix or color number.
Part Disposition: To be determined by customer approved or rejected. General comments by the organization or customer optional. Organization Signature, Phone No. Organization certification that the document information is accurate and meets all requirements specified. Authorized Customer Representative approval signature. Product malfunctions Reduced performance or product life Safety and Regulatory issues The DFMEA is a living document that should be reviewed and updated throughout the product life cycle.
Process Flow Diagram The Process Flow Diagram outlines the entire process for assembling the component or final assembly in a graphical manner.
The process flow includes incoming material, assembly, test, rework and shipping. The PFMEA is also a living document and should be updated even after the product is in normal production.
The Control Plan lists all product Special Characteristics and inspection methods required to deliver products that continually meet the customer quality requirements. Calibration records for all gages and measurement equipment must be included. Dimensional Results Dimensional layout of sample parts is required to validate the product meets the print specifications. The samples should be randomly selected from a significant production run usually at least 30 pieces.
Each dimension on the drawing is measured on the final assembly to make sure that it falls within specification. The results are recorded in a spreadsheet and included within the PPAP submission. It should list each and every test performed, a description of how the test was performed, and the results of each test.
This section may also include copies of all the certification documents for all materials steel, plastics, etc. The material certification shall show compliance to the specific call on the print.
Initial Process Studies Initial process studies will be done on all the production processes and will include Statistical Process Control SPC charts on the critical characteristics of the product. These studies demonstrate that the critical processes are stable, demonstrate normal variation and are running near the intended nominal value.
Qualified Laboratory Documentation Qualified laboratory documentation consists of the industry certifications for any lab that was involved in completing validation testing. This could be for an in-house test lab or any offsite contracted test facilities that were used for validation or material certification testing.
This report verifies that the customer has inspected the final product and it meets all the required appearance specifications for the design. The appearance requirements could include information regarding the color, textures, etc. A picture of the production parts is usually included in the PPAP documentation along with documentation regarding the location that the parts are being stored.
Master Sample A master sample is a final sample of the product that is inspected and signed off by the customer.
The master sample part is used to train operators and serves as a benchmark for comparison to standard production parts if any part quality questions arise. Checking Aids This is a detailed list of checking aids used by production. It should include all tools used to inspect, test or measure parts during the assembly process. The list should describe the tool and have the calibration schedule for the tool.