If you are interested in building your own electric motorcycle, but want even more .. I simply made my own paper template based on the PDF file that I already. Build Your Own. Electric Motorcycle. Carl Vogel. New York Chicago San Francisco. Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City. Milan New Delhi San Juan. More importantly, he is writing a book called Build Your Own Electric Motorcycle —stay tuned!! Steve Clunn assisted with the book and is an electric vehicle.
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Build Your Own Electric Motorcycle by Carl Vogel, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. Image Notes vitecek.info Image Notes 1 .instructables. It's not worth trying to make your own. http://www. Just buy the. How to [and not to] Build an. Electric Motorcycle. Zachary Rubin. Page 2. Why Build an EV? □ Gas is Costly. □ Electricity is win. □ EcoTard. □ Coolness factor .
Bestselling Series. Harry Potter. Popular Features. New in Build Your Own Electric Motorcycle. Description A step-by-step guide to building an electric motorcycle from the ground up Written by alternative fuel expert Carl Vogel, this hands-on guide gives you the latest technical information and easy-to-follow instructions for building a two-wheeled electric vehicle--from a streamlined scooter to a full-sized motorcycle.
Build Your Own Electric Motorcycle puts you in hog heaven when it comes to hitting the road on a reliable, economical, and environmentally friendly bike.
Inside, you'll find complete details on every component, including motor, batteries, and frame. The book covers electric motorcycles currently on themarket and explains how to convert an existing vehicle.
Pictures, diagrams, charts, and graphs illustrate each step along the way. Whether you want to get around town on a sleek ride or cruise the super slab on a tricked-out chopper, this is the book for you. Build Your Own Electric Motorcycle covers: Energy savings and environmental benefits Rake, trail, and fork angle Frame and design Batteries and chargers DC and AC motor types Motor controllers Accessories and converters Electrical system and wiring Conversion process Safety, maintenance, and troubleshooting show more.
The market wants them, the large organizations have responded to the market, and the car companies that are doing well Toyota and Honda are producing fuel-efficient and hybrid cars. Now, Ford, GM, and the other car companies are either producing or developing these type of cars as well. This is to be expected in business. Much has been said about creating a new type of car that can get 35 mpg.
In other countries where fuel is very expensive, such cars already exist. The cars are much smaller and have smaller engines. What has not been said is the great extent to which drivers control the range of these vehicles. In countries where fuel is expensive, drivers tend to drive at slower speeds. Driving twice as fast requires four times the energy to overcome aerodynamic losses. To go from 50 mph to mph increases the rate fuel or electrical energy is used almost by a factor of eight.
Since you get there in half the time, total energy used is increased by a factor of four. Even if you do not have an electric car, plan on converting a car, or plan on buying a hybridelectric car, one thing to take away from this book is that driving more efficiently will reduce your carbon footprint.
No one and everyone. The line from Dr. Applied collectively, the legacy of the internal combustion engine is greenhouse effect, foreign oil dependence, and pollution. A brief look at a few charts will demonstrate the facts see Figure Forty percent of our energy comes from petroleum, 23 percent from coal, and 23 percent from natural gas. The remaining 14 percent comes from nuclear power, hydroelectric, and renewables.
The U. Problems associated with oil supply include volatile oil prices, increasing world and domestic demand, and falling domestic production. The Arab Oil Crisis of and subsequent ones were not pleasant experiences.
After each crisis, the United States vowed to become less dependent on foreign oil producers—yet exactly the opposite has happened. Energ y Use: Today we are already past that amount. No one can accurately predict what fuel prices will be this summer or next year, and whether there will be a shortage or abundance of supplies.
Everyone agrees that this is a bad situation. We need to take real steps to correct the problem. How Electric Vehicles Can Help Maintaining stringent toxic air pollution emission levels along with conforming to increasingly higher mandated corporate average fuel economy levels puts an enormous burden on internal combustion engine vehicle technology and on your pocketbook. Automotive manufacturers have to work their technical staffs overtime to accomplish these feats, and the costs will be passed on to the new buyer.
Pollution control equipment is a problem each internal combustion engine vehicle owner has to revisit every year: How can electric vehicles reduce toxic air pollution emissions? All electric vehicles are by definition zero emission vehicles ZEVs: To quote Quanlu Wang, Mark A.
DeLuchi, and Dan Sperling, who studied the subject extensively: In addition, shifting the burden to coal-powered electrical generating plants for electric vehicle electricity production has these effects: Electric vehicles generate no emissions whatsoever and reduce our reliance on imported oils.
Frankly, until you get an appreciable number of electric cars on the road today hundreds of thousands to millions , they do not impact emissions from electrical generating plants. This does not bode well for our environment, our landfills, or anything else—especially when multiplied by hundreds of millions of vehicles. How can the electric vehicle help?
The only waste elements of an electric vehicle are its batteries. For example, lead-acid batteries—the kind commonly available today—are In processing many tons per day, almost every ounce is accounted for.
This means Toxic Input Fluids Pollution Remember, almost everything going into and coming out of the internal combustion engine is toxic. On the output side, when burning coal, oil, gas, or any fossil fuel, you create more problems either by the amount of carbon dioxide or by the type of other toxic emissions produced.
Everything you pour into an internal combustion engine is toxic, but some chemicals are especially nasty. In addition to more than compounds on its initial hazardous list, the Clean Air Act of amendments said: Poisoning your own drinking water is another. Those enormous holes in the ground near neighborhood gas stations everywhere as they rush to be compliant with federal regulations regarding acceptable levels of gasoline storage tank leakage make the point.
So does the recall of millions of bottles of Perrier drinking water where only tiny levels of benzene contamination were involved. The only substance you pour into your electric vehicle occasionally is water preferably distilled. Waste Heat Due to Inefficiency Although its present form represents its highest evolution to date, the gasoline-powered internal combustion engine is classified among the least efficient mechanical devices on the planet.
The internal combustion engine is close to 20 percent efficient. The efficiency of an Advance DC motor runs between 80 and 90 percent, sometimes lower. In gasoline-powered vehicles, only 20 percent of the energy of combustion becomes mechanical energy; the rest becomes heat lost in the engine system.
Of the 20 percent mechanical energy: In contrast to the hundreds of internal combustion engine moving parts, the electric motor has just one. Combine all these and you have an electric vehicle efficiency far greater than anything possible with an internal combustion engine vehicle.
Electric Utilities Love Electric Vehicles Even the most wildly optimistic electric vehicle projections show only a few million electric vehicles in use by early in the 21st century. Somewhere around that level, EVs will begin making a dent in the strategic oil, greenhouse, and air quality problems. This is due to the magic of load leveling. Load leveling means that if electric vehicles are used during the day and recharged at night, they perform a great service for their local electrical utility, whose demand curves almost universally look like that shown in Figure How electricity is generated varies widely from one geographic region to another, and even from city to city in a United States region.
In , the net electricity mix generated by electric utilities was Edison Electric Institute. Energy Information Administration. By owners recharging their electric vehicles in the evening hours valley periods they receive the benefit of an off-peak typically lower electric rate. By raising the valleys and bringing up its base-load demand, the electric utility is able to more efficiently utilize its existing plant capacity.
This is a tremendous near-term economic benefit to our electric utilities because it represents a new market for electricity sales with no additional associated capital asset expense. Summary Electric vehicle ownership is the best first step you can take to help save the planet. But there is still more you can do. Do your homework. Write your Senator or Congressperson. Voice your opinion. Get involved with the issues. Settle only for action—who is going to do what by when and why.
I leave you with a restatement of the problem, a possible framework for a solution, and some additional food for thought. Legacy of Internal Combustion Engine Is Environmental Problems Internal combustion engine technology and fuel should be priced to reflect its true social cost, not just its economic cost, because of the environmental problems it creates: A Proactive Solution People living in the United States have been extremely fortunate for most of our nations history.
However and more now than ever, we have issues with clean air, our natural resources, instable governments, expensive energy costs, and while having a convenient and true standard of living second to no other country on the planet. But nothing guarantees our future generations will enjoy the same birthright. For the sake of our children, we cannot walk away, we must do something. We must attack the problem straight on, pull it up by its roots, and replace it with a solution.
We need to look at the results wanted in the midst century and work backward—on both the supply and demand sides—to see what we must start doing today. No one has to be hurt by the change if they become part of the change. Automakers can make more efficient vehicles.
Suppliers can provide new parts in place of the old. The petrochemical industry can alter its mix to supply less crude as oil and gas and more as feedstock material used in making vehicles, homes, roads, and millions of other useful items. Long before any of these things happen, you can do your part by building your own electric vehicle.
Experience said, it is done. The two vehicle types will coexist for some time to come. While modern technology has made electric vehicles better, there is very little new in electric vehicle technology.
As a potential EV builder or converter, you should be happy to know they have a long and distinguished heritage—you might even get some useful building ideas by looking at the earliest-vintage EVs in an automobile museum.
A minimal number of trains in the MTA fleet are diesel-powered. In addition, each year I worked for the State of New York, the MTA shifted more and more from compressed natural gas to hybrid-electric transit buses. While they are not percent electric, it proves the point that an electric drive is cleaner and more fuel efficient than just an alternative fuel. Battery electric vehicles have also been extremely popular in some limited-range applications.
Forklifts have been battery electric vehicles BEVs since the early s and electric forklifts are still being produced. BEV golf carts have been available for years. Golf carts have led to the emergence of neighborhood electric vehicles NEVs or low-speed vehicles LSVs , which are speed-limited at 25 mph, but are legal for use on public roads.
As of July , there are between 60, and 76, low-speed, battery-powered vehicles in use in the U. I believe several thousand vehicles were donated by the car companies to receive ZEV credits for the amount of electric vehicles placed on road in By the late s, the electric automobile industry had completely disappeared, with battery-electric traction being limited to niche applications, such as certain industrial vehicles.
The invention of the point-contact transistor marked the beginning of a new era for BEV technology. Within a decade, Henney Coachworks had joined forces with National Union Electric Company, the makers of Exide batteries, to produce the first modern electric car based on transistor technology, the Henney Kilowatt, produced in volt and volt configurations.
Despite the improved practicality of the Henney Kilowatt over previous electric cars, it was too expensive and production was terminated in Even though the Henney Kilowatt never reached mass production volume, their transistor-based electric technology paved the way for modern EVs.
Timeline of Vehicle History Studying vehicle history is similar to looking at any economic phenomenon. The first iPod was a novelty; the one hundredth created a strong desire to own one. The same with vehicles—past events shift the background climate and affect current consumer wants and needs. The innovative Model T of the s was an outdated clunker in the s.
The great finned wonders of the s and muscle cars of the s were an anachronism by the s. A vehicle that was once in great demand is now only junkyard material because consumer wants and needs change.
Figure is rather busy, but studying it gives you clues to the rise and fall of the three types of vehicles in one picture—steam, electric, internal combustion—plus the interrelationship between them during the three stages of vehicle history. Electric vehicles —The Future How much higher? The future is bright. ZEV Mandate revised in Again, reduced incentives for ZEVs. More incentives for less fuel cell vehicles, hybrids and plug-in hybrids. While we are on the cusp of seeing electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids built, it remains to be seen how these technologies will play out politically and in the marketplace.
A brief look at electric vehicle history is helpful in understanding why electric vehicles came, went away, and are back again. The Timeline of Electric Cars Steam engines came first, followed by electric motors, and finally by internal combustion engines.
The thriving post-industrial revolution economy provided by the steam engine created the climate for electrical invention. Electrical devices made the internal combustion engine possible. Vehicles powered by them followed the same development sequence.
Steam and electric offerings were overwhelmed by the dominance of cheap oil and gasoline and virtually disappeared as competitors to internal combustion engine vehicles after Huff and Puff The same phenomenon that makes the heated tea kettle on your stove whistle, when suitably harnessed, makes a steam engine go. While the Cugnot steam tractor is a far cry from the Stanley Steamer automobiles of the early s a streamlined version of the latter set the land speed record at mph in , and still further removed from the high-performance Lear steam cars of a few decades ago, the problem with steam vehicles remains the steam.
Water needs a lot of heat to become steam, and it freezes at cold temperatures. Figure shows the steam, electric, and internal combustion vehicle population in the United States from to Steam-powered vehicles, popular in the last part of the s, declined in favor of the other two vehicle types after the early s.
Electric vehicles enjoyed rapid growth and popularity until about , then a slow decline until their brief resurgence in the s. Internal combustion engine—powered vehicles passed steam and electric early in the s. More than any other factor, cheap and nearly unlimited amounts of domestic and later foreign oil, which kept gasoline prices between 10 and 20 cents a gallon from through , suppressed interest in alternatives to internal combustion engine vehicles until more than 50 years later the s.
In the early s, steam vehicles unquestionably offered smoothness, silence, and acceleration. But stops for water were typically more frequent than stops for kerosene, and steamer designs required additional complexity and a lengthy startup sequence. While 40 percent of the vehicles sold in were steam 38 percent were electric , electrics offered simplicity, reliability, and ease of operation, while gasoline vehicles offered greater range and fuel efficiency.
Thus steamers declined, and only a handful operate today. I will debate the issue of fuel efficiency in later chapters. In one place it lights a factory, in another it conveys a message, and in a third it drives an electric vehicle. Electricity is transportable—it can be generated at a low-cost location and conveniently shipped hundred of miles to where it is needed. A storage battery, charged from electricity provided by a convenient wall outlet, can reliably carry electricity to start a car anywhere, or power an electric vehicle.
But our modern electrical heritage owes a great debt to many pioneers. Joseph Henry, building on the experiments of Han Christian Oersted in and Andre Ampere in , created the first primitive direct current DC electric motor in Michael Faraday demonstrated the induction principle and the first electric DC generator in Battery-powered electric technology was applied to the first land vehicle by Thomas Davenport in , to a small boat by M.
Tudor in —paved the way for extended electric vehicle use. By the s, DC power distribution via dynamos had been in use for a decade. Figure shows a cross-section of the more prominent United States electric vehicle manufacturers in operation from through the s. By , the peak production year for early electrics, 34, cars were registered.
The half page of magazine articles listed in the through volumes dwindled to a quarter page in —18 and disappeared altogether in the —28 volume. Early electric vehicle success in urban areas was easy to understand. Most paved roads were in urban areas; power was conveniently available; urban distances were short; speed limits were low; and safety, comfort, and convenience were primary purchase considerations.
The quietness, ease of driving, and high reliability made EVs a natural with the wealthy urban set in general and well-to-do women in particular. Clara Bryant Ford Mrs. Henry Ford could have any automobile she wanted, but she chose the Detroit Electric now on display at the Henry Ford Museum shown in Figure for getting around the Ford Park Lane estate and running errands.
Edison had his own personal Studebaker electric vehicle, and both he and Henry Ford were strongly supportive of EVs. Electric vehicles also dominated the commercial delivery fleets in urban areas around the world. Department stores, express delivery companies, post offices, utility, and taxicab companies in New York, Chicago, London, Paris, and Berlin used thousands of EVs.
High reliability 99 percent of the day work year availability and low maintenance characterized commercial EVs and made them fleet favorites. Half-ton trucks went 10 to 15 mph and had a 40 to 50 mile range. Ten-ton trucks went 5 to 10 mph and had a 30 to 40 mile range. An electric vehicle set the first land speed record. In , the French B. Today, with the United States and other industrialized nations substantially dependent on foreign oil, the strategic economic disadvantage of oil coupled with the environmental disadvantage of the internal combustion engine has created strong arguments for alternative solutions.
Animal oils had been used for centuries to provide illumination. Rock oils so called to indicate that they derived directly from the ground, and the original name for crude oil or petroleum were envisioned in the s only as superior alternatives for illumination and lubrication in the upcoming mechanical age.
Earlier researchers had discovered that a quality illuminating oil, kerosene, could be extracted from coal or rock oil.
Coal existed in plentiful quantities. The discovery of oil in Western Pennsylvania by Edwin Drake in was the spark that ignited the oil revolution. Almost overnight, the boom in Pennsylvania oil, with its byproducts exported globally, became vitally important to the United States economy. The promise of fabulous wealth provided the impetus that attracted the best business minds of the age to the quest.
These monopolies, securely in place before the s, were all based on the markets for oil as kerosene and lubricating products. In the s, gasoline, once thrown away after kerosene was obtained, was lucky to bring two cents a gallon, but that was about to change. Coal was the foundation for the industrial revolution, and the first internal combustion engine built in by Etienne Lenoir was fired by coal gas. Nikolaus Otto improved on the design with a four-cycle approach in Early internal combustion vehicles were noisy, difficult to learn to drive, difficult to start, and prone to explosions backfiring that categorized them as dangerous in competing steam and electric advertisements.
Only three years later, more than companies had been organized to manufacture motorcars. While DC and AC electrical distribution systems guaranteed that electric lighting would replace the kerosene lamp, cheap domestic oil, which kept gasoline prices between two and ten cents a gallon between and , guaranteed the success of internal combustion vehicles. By , Henry Ford had produced numerous designs. The four-cylinder, hp, 1,lb. Simultaneously, integration along with the political problems in Russia had consolidated the world oil market in the hands of two companies by But by , the investigation of Standard Oil launched by president Teddy Roosevelt in resulted in the United States federal court finding Standard Oil guilty of antitrust violations and ordering its breakup into the companies we recognize today: Meanwhile, other internal combustion engine vehicle innovators were busy too: Walter Chrysler, John and Horace Dodge the brothers who began as captive suppliers to Ford , and numerous others provided innovations that survive to the present day.
The internal combustion vehicles were now on their way.
In , half of the 80 million people in the United States lived in a few large mostly Eastern cities with paved roads, and the other half in towns linked by dirt roads or in countryside with no roads at all.
Less than 10 percent of the 2 million miles of roads were paved. More than 25 million horses and mules provided mobility for the masses. Electric lighting in the larger cities was dwarfed by the use of kerosene lamps, popularized by the discovery of plentiful amounts of oil, in the countryside.
Coal- or wood-burning steam engine locomotives were high tech. Three types of vehicles came into this turn-of-the-century United States environment. By the time World War I was over, the internal combustion vehicle had emerged as the clear victor. After World War II, world internal combustion engine automotive growth was even more dramatic.
Is it any wonder that no one cared how large the cars were in the s or how much gas they guzzled in the s? Gasoline was cheaper than water. But there were also some problems: Japanese and European auto manufacturers had smaller, more fuel-efficient internal combustion vehicle solutions as a result of years of higher gasoline prices due to higher taxes earmarked for infrastructure rebuilding.
The market share lost by the big three to foreign automakers has never been regained. By the early s, the wild oil party of the preceding 75 years was over. Environmental problems, the need for energy conservation, and the instability of foreign oil supply all signal that the sun is setting on the internal combustion vehicle.
It will not happen overnight. In the near term the industrialized nations of the world and emerging Third World nations will consume ever greater amounts of foreign oil. Flexible, oil-powered internal combustion engine cars, trucks, tanks, and airplanes were superior to fixed, coal-powered railway transportation; and those who controlled the supply of oil won the war. The Germans did not have access to vast amounts of oil; the destruction of the Ploesti refinery in Romania and their belated, failed attempts at capturing Baku cost them the war.
Meanwhile, internal combustion engine vehicle registrations in the United States exploded from one-half million in , to 9 million in , to 27 million in , and slowed by the depression, to 33 million in More and more paved roads were built; the landscape was changed forever. Then the biggest oil find of them all was discovered in October —the giant East Texas oil reservoir that later proved to measure 45 miles long and up to 10 miles wide.
Now the problem was too much oil, and the United States government had to enter the picture to control prices. With cheap, available gasoline prevailing as fuel, and basic internal combustion engine vehicle design fixed, manufacturing economies of scale brought the price within reach of every consumer.
Expansion away from urban areas made vehicle ownership a necessity. The creation of an enormous highway infrastructure culminated in completion of the interstate highway system.
This was accompanied by the destruction of urban non-internal-combustion-powered transit infrastructure by political maneuvering in the United States, and by damage during World War II in Japan and Europe. It needed the oil resources of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Indochina. After an oil embargo against Japan was set up in mid by blocking the use of Japanese funds held in the United States, Japan was desperate for oil, and did what it had to do to get it.
Farben, the huge German chemical combine, had mastered synthetic fuel recovery from coal by the early s—hydrogenation was the most popular method—and Germany had plenty of coal. Germany also lost World War II long before , but learned its oil lesson well and converted to the oil standard soon after the war despite massive reserves of coal. What did the allies learn from World War II? They relearned the lesson from World War I: Whoever controls the supply of oil wins the war.
They also learned the value of a strategic petroleum reserve. Up until , the allies nearly lost the war to the Germans in the North Atlantic—the success of submarine wolf packs made it nearly impossible for allied oil tankers to resupply England, Europe, and Africa. While the United States provided six out of every seven barrels of allied oil during World War II, it was recognized by many in government that it would soon become a net importer of oil. Oil exploration in this period was in high gear.
A nearly inexhaustible supply had apparently been found in the Middle East; gasoline prices bounced between 20 and 30 cents per gallon until the early s.
Aided by the convenience of the internal combustion automobile, America moved to the suburbs, where distances were measured in commuting minutes, not miles.
Gasoline was plentiful and cheap reflecting underlying oil prices and regular local retail price wars made it even cheaper. Highway Bill signed by President Eisenhower in , authorizing a 42,mile superhighway system.
Germany and Japan and most of the rest of the industrialized world rapidly converted from coal to oil economies after World War II, and underwent an unprecedented period of economic and industrial expansion as the surge in automobile registrations outside of the United States, shown in Figure , attests.
All the industrialized economies of the world were now dependent on internal combustion engine vehicles and oil. The s: The heightened environmental concerns of the s, specifically air pollution, were the first wave upon which electric vehicles rose again.
While numerous s visionaries were correctly touting EVs as a solution, the manufacturing technology was, unfortunately, not up to the vision. Figure shows a chronological summary of what was being done by the primary electric vehicle developers in the United States, Europe, and Japan during the four waves. Unfortunately, the most available motors in the appropriate size were decades-old war surplus aircraft starter DC motors; do-it-yourself controllers were barely more sophisticated than their turn-of-the-century counterparts; and battery technology, although cosmetically improved by modern manufacturing and packaging techniques, was virtually unchanged from As the most readily available controllers came from golf carts that typically used six 6-volt batteries 36 volts , and aircraft starter motors were typically rated at 24 to 48 volts, many first-time do-it-yourself EV attempts suffered from poor performance, and contemporary internal combustion muscle car owners of the s just laughed at them.
Then someone discovered motors were actually underrated to ensure long life, and began driving them at 72 to 96 volts. Some early owners found they could make simple, non-current-limiting controllers, and create vehicles that could easily embarrass any internal combustion muscle car at a stoplight. For a conceptual picture of this, imagine a subway traction motor in a dune buggy.
In fact, these owners simply left the starting resistance out of a series DC motor, or equivalently diddled a shunt or compound motor. A series DC motor delivers peak torque at stall, and while starting currents were enormous, these early innovators just made sure they had a load attached when they switched on the juice.
The immediate result was a rush. Predictably, the longer-term results were burned-out motors and, occasionally, broken drive shafts or axles. But the sanely driven and controlled to volt EV conversions were not bad at all. This was the s, and the Electric Auto Association was founded in It was sad that numerous individuals could develop EV solutions far superior to anything put forth by the giant industrial corporations that had helped to put a man on the moon in the same decade.
The problem was not that these corporations lacked talent, money, or technology. E l e c t r i c Ve h i c l e H i s t o r y presumed their current successes would continue forever, and they were committed to maintaining the status quo to assure it. Phoenix Rising, Quickly The late s policies of the major American automobile manufacturers put them in a poor position to respond to the crisis of the early s—the oil shock of A huge inventory of stylish but large, gas-guzzling cars, along with four- to five-year new car development cycles, made it an impossible situation.
All they could do was wait out the crisis and import smaller, more fuel-efficient cars from their foreign subsidiaries.
The higher European and Japanese gasoline prices had, over the years, forced them to develop lighter, more compact automobiles with economical drivetrains. Thus imports, unimportant in the United States until the early s, gained a foothold that was to become a significant factor over time.
It was against this backdrop that the electric vehicle rose again, like the phoenix from the ashes. Five trends shown in Figure highlight electric vehicle development during this second wave: But GM did nothing technically innovative, and both conversion efforts became self-fulfilling prophecies: As mentioned in Chapter 1, an 8,lb. The Chevette had 20 volt maintenance-free batteries, a mph top speed, a mile range at 30 mph, and weighed in at 2, pounds—maybe a marginal conversion choice.
The van performance and pricing were even worse. They took a hard look at the problem and decided the two critical areas were battery technology and drivetrain efficiency.
The program was a resounding success. The AMC General vans were also a resounding success. Both the Harbilt and AMC General vans had enormously high uptimes and low cost per mile while being driven almost continuously during their evaluation periods. Independent EV Manufacturers Rise and Fall Numerous independent electric vehicle manufacturers came out of the woodwork after the oil shock; it was a repetition of turn-of-the-century vehicle development with the good, the bad, and the ugly.
There were many EVs to choose from, but most were not technically innovative, manufacturing quality was inconsistent, and component quality was occasionally poor. Prevailing designs used either conversions of existing internal combustion vehicles or unsophisticated new chassis, and many were poorly engineered.
In addition, most firms were severely undercapitalized. While the automotive industry marketed its internal combustion—powered vehicles via public relations, lobbying to blunt legislation, measuring public taste through survey and prototype programs, product advertising, and distribution through a dealer network, EV manufacturers of the s used few of these, and haphazardly. Eventually, more than 2, CitiCars were produced. It was very popular in its day; owners were fiercely loyal, and it received much publicity.
Unfortunately, although it was well built many are still on the road today , efficient, and practical, its design and styling gave it the appearance of a glorified golf cart, similar to the late s engineering prototypes previously mentioned.
The public would always associate EVs with golf carts and some nebulous stigma. But this painful lesson was well learned by other electric vehicle manufacturers, and later models avoided golf-cart—looking designs like the plague. Another wellknown manufacturer of this period was Electric Fuel Propulsion. Their early Renault R 10 and Hornet conversions led to their original and innovative Transformer featuring volt tripolar lead-cobalt batteries, a mph top speed, and mile range with its range-extending Mobile Power Plant trailer.
Electric Vehicle Industry Closes Ranks to Show Support One of the more innovative promotions of this period involved the development of prototypes by industry associations and individual manufacturers who stood to gain from the sale of their product s in electric vehicles.
The prototypes were used for all sorts of public relations event-style marketing. The result was raising the level of public awareness about EVs—so much so that individuals, thinking these were production products, frequently called these organizations to place orders.
From the Lexus to the Prius to the Camry, hybrid drive is a world-class drive system. While the Japanese Electric Vehicle Association and its tight coordination with MITI directives did not arrive on the scene until , Japanese government funding of EV programs began in with Phase I basic research into batteries, motors, control systems, and components across the spectrum of car, truck, and bus platforms.
More of what was needed was available for conversions, and how-to books even started to appear. Other than the fact that components—particularly the controllers—were still unsophisticated, individual converters enjoyed relating their conversion experiences at regular Electric Auto Association meetings and pushed the outside of the speed and distance envelope at rallies and events. The greatest irony of this period is that at the same time General Motors was providing extremely negative information to the Congressional hearings, the individuals who had actually done a conversion to an electric vehicle were reporting high degrees of satisfaction, with operating costs in the range of two cents per mile, and most had yet to replace their first set of batteries.
With oil and gasoline prices again approaching their s levels, everyone lost interest in EVs, and the capital coffers of the smaller EV manufacturers were simply not large enough to weather the storm. Even research programs were affected. From mid until the early s, it was as if everything having to do with EVs suddenly fell into a black hole—there were no manufacturers, no books, not even many magazine articles.
The EV survivors were the prototype builders and converters, the parts suppliers who typically had other lines of business such as batteries, motors, and electrical components , and EV associations, although their membership ranks thinned somewhat. Four trends see Figure highlight EV development during this third wave: But survive they did, to emerge triumphant in the s.
Arrival and Departure of Independent Manufacturers Numerous independent electric vehicle manufacturers had already come and gone during the previous wave. Electric Vehicle Associates of Cleveland, Ohio, is the best example of the first type. While their Renault 12 conversion and ElectroVan project with Chloride were interesting diversions, they are best known for their Change of Pace wagons and sedans built on AMC Pacer platforms. The Change of Pace four-passenger sedan weighed in at around 3, lbs.
Jet Industries of Austin, Texas, once one of the largest and best of the independent EV manufacturers, was also the last to arrive on the scene. It also offered larger eight-passenger vans and pickups. The 2,lb. ElectraVan had a GE hp or Prestolite hp DC series motor, SCR controller, and 17 6-volt lead-acid batteries that could push it to 55 mph with a mile range.
Hundreds of ElectraVan s and Coupes are prized possessions among Electric Auto Association members today, attesting to their outstanding quality and durability. Jet Industries, alas, is no more. Needless to say, industry association support of independent EV manufacturers—at its zenith during the previous wave—moved to its nadir during this one.
There were no longer any independent electric vehicle manufacturers to support. Individual Conversions Continue Individuals assisted by more and better everything during the last wave now had to make do with more modest resource levels. But EV conversions by individuals continued throughout this wave, albeit at a slower pace. The best news of the s was that the resources of the s could still be found and used. During this wave, individual converters still enjoyed relating their conversion experiences at regular Electric Auto Association meetings; they still pushed the outside of the speed and distance envelope at rallies and events; and they still reported high degrees of satisfaction with what they had done.
Mids to s This period marked a successively heightened awareness of problems with internal combustion vehicles. Smog problems of the mids made us aware we were polluting our environment and killing ourselves.
Arab oil embargoes, shortages, and gluts of the s, s, and s made us aware of our dependence on foreign oil. Nuclear and oil spill accidents of the s and s made us aware of the long-range consequences of our short-range energy decisions. The internal combustion engine and oil problems that started with a whimper in the mids turned into a groundswell of public opinion by the s. The net result of new awareness in this period has been the reemergence of electric vehicles.
When legislative action mandating zero emission vehicles in the s forced rethinking of basic vehicle design, current technology applied to the EV concept emerged as the ideal solution.
Twilight of the Oil Gods By the middle of the s, many in government and industry around the globe became aware that something was very wrong with this picture. E l e c t r i c Ve h i c l e H i s t o r y oil was becoming worse, and smog and environmental issues began coming into the foreground. Passage of the Clean Air Act of was one result. The passage of a corporate average fuel economy CAFE standards bill was another.
The problem was obvious to some, but most of the public chugged merrily along in their internal combustion—powered vehicles. By cutting production 5 percent per month from September levels, and cutting an additional 5 percent each succeeding month until their price objectives were met, the Organization for Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC effectively panicked, strangled, and subverted the industrialized nations of the world to their will.
Figure shows the drastic change. How could it happen? But by the early s there was no longer any surplus capacity to redirect—the United States production peak of Up until the s, the oil industry focused on restraining production to support prices.
Collateral to this action, relatively low oil prices forced low investment and discovery rates, and import quotas kept a lid on supplies. But rising demand erased the need for production-restraint tactics and the surplus capacity along with it. Iran was the second largest oil producer, exporting 4.
S Average — Arabian Light posted at Ras Tanura — Brent Spot Source: What started as a 2 million barrel per day shortfall became 5 million barrels per day as governments, oil companies, and consumers scrambled for supplies. Although Iranian exports returned to the market by March , the ill-timed Three Mile Island nuclear accident of March 28, further intensified the panic surrounding energy awareness, in addition to forever altering public opinion on nuclear power.
Several other factors contributed to making the gasoline crisis that occurred during in most industrialized nations of the free world more severe than any previous crisis. Many refineries set up to process light Iranian crude could not deliver as much gasoline from the alternate heavier crude oil they were forced to accommodate. Uncooperative and in some cases, conflicting policies by federal, state, and local governments and oil companies disrupted the orderly distribution of the gasoline supplies that were available.
I've always wanted a motorcycle and decided that making an electric motorcycle would be a good EV project. Don't waste your time trying to build a potimeter on an old throttle--just buy a pre-made one and be done with it. You'll want to get a fuse that matches your setup. I ended up getting the D51 model. I went with 6 Yellow Top Optima batteries from remybattery. I ordered it online thunderstruck-ev. You have to match your charger with your voltage but the speed of charge in Amps is also up to your budget.
Components and tools Every motorbike is different but the basic components can be the same. This is a device that you hook up to your existing key ignition on 12Volts and it will close the loop so you get the full power to your controller. And the bike didn't run. Why and how I only work 3 miles from home but with gas prices getting out of control. It seems that there are only two real choices: Alltrax or Curtis. A little knowledge of motorcycle maintenance wouldn't hurt.
I got the Magura K Twist grip throttle from cloudelectric. Craig's List or ebay motors. I looked at many different bike styles and decided on a Honda Interceptor for a few reasons: Thanks Ned. After making cardboard mock ups of the D23 model I realized that there was no way six full sized batteries would fit and still look good. This may take a long time to pay off in gas savings. I purchased a Sevcon 72V Input Check out the photos at the bottom to see what I bought and the EVAlbum for other electric vehicle projects.
This project took about 3 months of research and development not counting waiting for parts to come in or help from a friend with the welding. You'll have to decide for yourself. How to build a 72Volt electric motorcycle No gas. I highly recommend battery terminal covers for safety. Below is a list of the parts I used and where I got them. I thought it would be great to have an electric vehicle.
After reading other EV bike specs and knowing that I wanted to go faster than a moped. As an added feature I wired up the ignition switch to the neutral indicator to show me when the bike was on. Other parts Wire. So don't yell at me about trashing a perfectly good motorcycle.
Bought on ebay motors in non working condition. This meter has multiple settings but I only use the volts. Additionally a volt meter. Image Notes Image Notes 1. Just buy the throttle. Alltrax makes a very nice speed controller with configuration software.
It's not worth trying to make your own. After you get your motor mount and battery compartment all welded up. Remove the gas tank and using your grinder or other cutting tool to cut out the bottom. The last thing he did was weld in metal plates for mounting my electrical components.
Next he fabricated the battery rack and gave each battery a swing arm closure to give a tight fit yet still allow me to get them out easily. Take a look at my pictures to see how I fit everything. I had a friend weld it up for me and he did a fantastic job.
Make sure all gas is out before cutting Reference your owners manual so that you don't cut any necessary wires. This makes room for extra batteries or components. The build Start by removing all of those nasty internal combustion engine parts. Then I used some metallic gray and black spray paint. Now for the hard part.
This makes a world of difference and costs very little. You need a secure battery box and motor mount. From the photos you can see that he first strung up the motor to allow for minor adjustment to be made before cutting the motor mount plate.
Two wires in. After that was cut he made a nice chain and sprocket enclosure with a door and welded them onto the frame. If you have the money get one good charger instead of trying to use multiple smaller ones. I made a fake gas cap and ran the power cord from the charger up the frame and out the top.
Now that you have all of the welding done and your frame looks great. I removed any rust spots and chipped paint that I could find. Half inch foam padding spacers are between each battery to help cushion the stack--but believe me. Used thin rope to hold up the motor in just the right spot.
Moving six cardboard batteries is a lot easier than real ones Image Notes Image Notes 1. Battery rack has removable pins on each one to allow for a more snug fit and for easier removal of batteries. Motor mount welded in place measurements could be made. Optima batterys are sealed so they can be positioned in any direction.
Sprocket and chain cover door swings open for easy maintenance. This diagram should be pretty accurate to how I built mine. Wiring If I tried to explain where to connect every single wire I would get writers cramp. View the wiring diagram that I put together and let me know if you have any questions. Wire wrap makes things look professional. Speed controller 2. Albright Contactors SW gets 12 volts from system and allows you to use 1. Battery connector covers make things look nice and keep you safe.
Emeter 72V prescaler 4. Lock washers are a must. Shunt 6. For more photo's and a build commentary visit my website at http: Did my own prep work to save money but had them professionally painted. I wanted my bike to look as good as it rides. It will give you readings for Volts.
Here is the E-meter nicely installed where the rpm gauge used to be. I know these weren't step by step building instructions. Be prepared for the dealership mechanics to swarm and hit you with a bunch of questions and jokes about failing the emissions test. My intention was to give you the motivation to build your own by seeing how I did it and make it easier by supplying the parts list and a wiring diagram.
I got the bike inspected and insured. Last few things Double check all of your connections and tighten every bolt. Hours left and Time left.