A Conquista do Estado- Ação Politica, Poder e Golpe de Classe- Rene Armand vitecek.info Uploaded by Download as PDF or read online from Scribd . a Conquista Do Estado- Ação Politica, Poder e Golpe de Classe- Rene Armand Dreifus. Uploaded Download as PDF or read online from Scribd. Flag for. Results 1 - 30 A CONQUISTA DO ESTADO DOWNLOAD - PDF DESIGN. His first book became a popular bestseller with successive editions: A Conquista.
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Next Article. Titelei Inhalt In memoriam: Woodrow Wilson Borah In memoriam: To win back support from some of these actors, the Geisel government softened its controls over the press and cultural life.
It did not, however, dismantle institutions of censorship and repression. The Geisel government created, for example, the so-called bionic senators, appointed by the president and not accountable to voters. The Geisel government also sought to stifle debates over relevant national issues in legislative elections. By , however, growing opposition from the student movement and labor unions, backed by opposition leaders and widely respected professional and religious entities, led the government to move beyond this timid reform agenda.
While the uninterrupted flow of international capital enabled the Brazilian economy to respond relatively well to the first oil shock, the petroleum crisis in , along with an increase in international interest rates in the early s, had disastrous effects on Brazil and Latin America as a whole.
The nation had developed new technology to produce automotive fuel from sugar cane, but oil was still an important commodity in the balance of payments. Inflation and foreign debt spun out of control, the balance of payments was thrown off once again, unemployment returned to haunt the working class, and middle-class incomes declined. The dire economic situation swelled the ranks of the opposition, made up of moderate conservatives and the left, all of whom demanded a return to democracy.
These groups sponsored dozens of bombings on business entities, newspaper headquarters, and popular movements between and The government nevertheless maintained the general guidelines of its controlled liberalizing agenda, which had three key components: An intense campaign in had placed the issue at the center of public debate. Protest from the left was of no avail, and Congress passed the amnesty law in August Next, the government put forth a political reform ending the two-party system in place since As dissatisfaction with the government mounted in the late s, the new plan was to divide the opposition as much as possible while preserving a single unified pro-regime party.
The official party of the regime remained united under an ironic new name: Despite its internal divisions, the liberal opposition represented by the PMDB won important state governments in the November gubernatorial elections. The results made the party, especially its moderate wing led by Tancredo Neves, an important interlocutor in the transition to democracy.
Between and , the regime and the opposition began discussing how the armed forces would ultimately leave power.
Despite the economic crisis and the loss of political prestige, including among those who had supported the coup, the military still controlled the state, a significant part of the bureaucracy that distributed public funds to states and municipalities, and, of course, the repressive apparatus.
Indeed, while censorship and state violence had eased since , the institutional infrastructure that made them possible remained in place and could be reactivated at any time. Conservative opposition groups PMDB, the press, and the business community did not want to end the regime in a way that might strengthen the more assertive parties and movements of the left, popular among intellectuals and street demonstrators but with little institutional or legislative influence.
They preferred to negotiate with moderate sectors of the armed forces who were no longer interested in maintaining power at any cost. For their part, members of the military were wary of a crisis similar to what had happened in Argentina, where the armed forces were removed from power after losing the Falklands War and forced to suffer the humiliation of seeing their generals tried in civil courts for crimes against humanity.
Such a scenario was unlikely in Brazil, but the military nevertheless aimed to ensure an honorable and negotiated exit. But the nation had changed, and anti-communist hysteria was not the mobilizing force it had once been for the middle class and in the political system as a whole.
The problem was that part of the PMDB was not fully committed to the pushing for direct elections. Calculating that it would be possible to defeat the PDS candidate in the indirect election scheduled for January , the group led by Tancredo Neves began developing an alternative plan for the transition. If the constitutional amendment failed, the opposition would appeal to the Electoral College.
Ultimately, the amendment fell short on April 25, The government had successfully convinced a number of legislators to boycott the vote, thereby preventing the chamber from reaching the quorum needed to approve the amendment two-thirds of Congress.
In the second half of , despite the boycott of leftist movements and parties, the PMDB put forth Tancredo Neves as candidate for president, a moderate and experienced political leader who had never committed to the military regime. He had broken with the government after supporting the regime for years. The PDS also nominated a civilian for president. Tancredo Neves easily won the presidential elections in January , causing great popular excitement.
But before his inauguration in April, the negotiated transition experienced a major setback. Tancredo fell ill and, after a long hospitalization, died in April This probably overstates matters, not least because, under Sarney, a democratically elected constituent assembly was called, with full political freedom, including legalized communist parties.
In , the new Federal Constitution of Brazil was promulgated, the most democratic in its history. Yet the new democratic system left many enduring problems unresolved, including the effective lack of civil rights for the poor, widespread corruption, police violence, and income inequality.
After winning elections in and , she was removed in following a controversial and questionable impeachment process. The academic literature on the coup and the Brazilian military regime is vast, with a long tradition of research dating back to the early s. It includes numerous books published in several languages, primarily English and French, besides Portuguese.
This body of work has largely been concerned with four major topics: In addition to these thematic axes, there are few books that take a holistic approach, analyzing the broad dynamics of political, economic, and social life during the dictatorship.
Three distinct views dominate the literature on the civil-military coup: Along those lines, leaders like Goulart hoped to subsume working-class demands under a broader agenda of national development.
The second interpretive line emphasizes the conspiracy at the core of the political crisis in Supported by extensive and previously unpublished documentation, the author elucidates the struggle for control carried out by the political leadership of the bourgeoisie associated with multinational capital, culminating in the seizure of state power. In the s, but especially in the decade after, new works by political scientists drawing on functionalist theoretical models pushed analysis of the crisis in other directions.
By emphasizing the rationality or lack thereof of institutional actors, these scholars did not see the coup as the result of a flawless conspiracy or as the culmination of a coherent right-wing ideological project.
Instead, they thought of the political crisis as primarily an institutional one, brought on by a break in the systems of political negotiation and the radicalization of actors who could not find space to reconcile conflicting visions. This current of analysis includes authors like Wanderley Guilherme dos Santos and Argelina Figueiredo.
Regarding leftist movements that took up arms against the regime, there are three classic works. Jacob Gorender, a former guerrilla, wrote the first systematic history of the armed struggle, presenting the main events and impasses of the various groups with remarkable detachment. Both sought to overcome the dichotomy of cooptation and resistance that have traditionally dominated accounts of relations between intellectuals and the regime.
In recent years, several new themes have been explored, opening up avenues of historical research on the military period. For example, recent studies have focused more intently on the repressive apparatus, notably in books by Carlos Fico and Mariana Joffily. Historians have also been working with newly available documentation to assess the participation and support of intellectuals and civil society in the regime.
Although widely accepted in the public discourse and by the conservative press, such statements provoked vigorous academic debate since For these scholars, civilian support, qualified and socially diffuse, is not enough to define the nature of a political regime.
Most archives related to the Brazilian dictatorship are well organized and accessible, both in and out of Brazil. As a rule, such material is held by state archives since each state administered its own political police. Collections linked to social movements and the left as a whole parties and organizations, social movements, trade unions, and armed groups are scattered across three major archives: The first contains the records of the student movement and the enormous documentation generated by the Brasil: Nunca Mais project, which systematized information on human-rights violations.
At CEDEM, there are vast holdings regarding the Brazilian left in exile, on the labor movement, and on the campaign for political amnesty.
Centro de Pesquisas Vergueiro, for its part, maintains important documentation related to union and popular neighborhood movements influenced by the Catholic Church.
Meanwhile, the National Library and the Brazilian Digital Newspaper Archive Hemeroteca Digital keep full collections of mainstream press outlets, crucial for studying this period and understanding the dominant conservative view of the coup and the regime. The IPMs gathered extensive documentation from various social movements immediately prior to the coup.
Many secret military records remain inaccessible or purportedly missing, especially those relating to military operations against leftist guerrillas. Arquivos da Ditadura primary sources on the military regime compiled by journalist Elio Gaspari, focusing especially on the presidents, their advisors, and the intelligence-gathering and repressive apparatus.
Arquivo Nacional. Hemeroteca Digital Brasileira. Alvarez, Sonia. Engendering democracy in Brazil: Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, Find this resource: Alves, Maria Helena Moreira. State and Opposition in Military Brazil.
University of Texas Press, Codato, Adriano. Davila, Jerry. Dictatorship in Latin America.
Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, Dunn, Christopher. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, Fico, Carlos. O governo dos Estados Unidos e a ditadura militar brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Green, James. We Cannot Remain Silent: Durham, NC: Duke University Press, Huggins, Martha K. Violence Workers: Los Angeles: University of California Press, Joffily, Mariana. No centro da engrenagem.
Arquivo Nacional, Langland, Victoria. Speaking of Flowers: Leacock, Ruth. Requiem for Revolution. The United States and Brazil — Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, O palacio e a caserna: Napolitano, Marcos.
Editora Contexto, Parker, Phyllis. Brazil and the Quiet Intervention , Patto, Rodrigo. As universidades e o regime militar: Zahar, Ridenti, Marcelo. Reis filho, Daniel. Ditadura e democracia no Brasil. Stepan, Alfred. The Military in Politics: Changing Patterns in Brazil. Serbin, Kenneth. Secret Dialogues. Skidmore, Thomas. The Politics of Military Rule in Brazil — Oxford University Press, Luiz A.
Claudio Bojunga, JK: Objetiva, Uma biografia Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Ferreira and Angela de Castro Gomes, O governo dos Estados Unidos e a ditadura militar brasileira Rio de Janeiro: Rene Dreifuss, Vozes, ; and Carlos Fico, O golpe de Janaina M.
Cordeiro, Direitas em movimento: Editora FGV, Marcos Napolitano, Napolitano, Vozes, Maria Ribeiro Valle, Movimento Estudantil e ditadura militar no Brasil Campinas: Editora Unicamp, Jacob Gorender, Combate nas trevas.: Carlos Fico, Como eles agiam: Record, ; and Mariana Joffily, No centro da engrenagem.
IE, Zuenir Ventura, Nova Fronteira, Marcelo Ridenti, Em busca do povo brasileiro Rio de Janeiro: Editora Record, Tunico Amancio, Artes e manhas da Embrafilme: UFMG, , — Serbin, Needs of the Heart: Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, Eder Sader, Quando novos personagens entraram em cena: Paz e Terra, Intermeios, ; and James Green, Ditadura e homossexualidade.
McFarland and Company Inc. Alfred Stepan, Os militares: Editora 34, Oxford University Press, ; Napolitano, Octavio Ianni, O colapso do populismo no Brasil , 2nd ed. Brasileira,