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Kwon argues that fishermen worship the whale, while hunters in the 4 Interview with Gian Method I have attempted to conduct qualitative interviews partly supported by observations. During my stay I have used a daily diary to keep track of feelings, weather, happenings and so forth.
Throughout my interviews, I have used a notepad and a digital camera. To avoid misunderstand- ings, some of the informants have been interviewed on several occa- sions.
I am aware of the problems of having an interpreter when it comes to direct speech adequately representing. I have tried to do my best to adress this by using two different interpreters on different occa- sions. At times, I have had both of the interpreters assisting me in dis- cussing the outcome of the interviews.
I have also had this paper read through by two of my informants to make certain everything is cor- rectly understood. The method I have used is based upon Grounded theory: You will mostly do this through observation, conversation and interview. The interviews have been more or less semi-structured, as I have developed the questions as my research has proceeded.
Hence, only a few main questions have been prepared in advance. I have also received help from a local guide, who was also working as an English teacher, and who also at times served as my interpreter.
Furthermore, I have randomly asked people outside the fishing villages, i. It is of importance, as a reader, to be aware that all of the informants are, in one way or another, a part of the fishing community, i.
All Temple Keepers are fishermen as well. The temple keepers have chosen not to state their names. However, it is important to state that their decisions really do not have anything to do with their wish to remain anonymous; the temple keepers are simply referred to by locals as temple keepers of their particular temple, and hence their given names are not considered significant.
He assisted Mr. Heonik Kwon in writing the future Doctoral Thesis: The Phantom of War. The temple keeper and his family have guarded the temple for 50 years. The whale temple in Ha Quang Dong fell apart 5 years ago, while this is the new temple.
The temple keeper has been guarding and taking care of the temple since it was rebuilt. The temple keeper has looked after the temple from the day it was moved. He comes from a family where fishing has been carried out for generations. He lives by the river, and his father and generations before him are all fishermen. The words are defined as follows according to the Oxford Dictionary Online, and are used accordingly. Animism as a noun can be defined as the belief that plants and inani- mate objects have souls.
There is also an adjective, animistic, originating from the Latin anima. The noun belief derives from Old English and is defined as a feeling that something exists or is true, especially without proof. It may also be defined as a firmly held opinion, a religious faith and finally as a belief in trust or confidence in.
The word cult is defined as a system of religious worship directed towards a particular figure or object. It may also be defined as a small religious group regarded as strange or as imposing excessive control over its members. Something popular or fashionable among a particular section of society can also be defined as a cult. As an adjective, the word refers to pagans and their beliefs. The word pagan derives from the noun paganism, which originates from the Latin word paganus mean- ing rustic, and also civilian, i.
It may also mean a particular system of faith and worship, or a pursuit or interest followed with devotion. Superstition as a noun is defined as an excessively credulous belief in the supernatural. It can also be defined as a widely held but irrational belief in supernatural influences, especially those which bring good or bad luck. Worship is defined as the feeling or expression of reverence and adoration for a deity, and can also mean religious rites and ceremonies.
As a verb, the word worship, i. The Vietnamese have two words to describe belief: Furthermore, since the Vietnamese language con- sists of a system of tones used in various combinations to tell the differ- ence between the meanings of words, I find it quite essential to spell out the Vietnamese words within this study accurately.
Nevertheless, any misspellings that might occur are mine. My intention to go straight to the central coast had to change, and I also had to cancel my trip to Cu Lao Cham, as foul weather made the Cham Islands an unsafe place for tourists. Hence no boat trips were offered during my entire stay. Even though small differences do occur along the coast due to local divergences, the general belief seems to be the same.
I have therefore made certain that I was allowed to men- tion the names and thus reveal the identity of my informants in this study. I did mention the possibility of anonymity to my informants, but they all turned down my offer. Given this, I guess I was more con- cerned by the possible consequences than my informants actually were.
Theoretical Considerations Sir James Frazer and Edward Burnett Taylor proved earlier interpreta- tions of animism and definitions of religion. Taylor, by some considered the founder of anthropology developed a theory based on the origin of all religious belief systems in his work Primitive Culture. Furthermore, he also developed the term ethnology used as a tool for fully understanding an organized community or culture as a whole, which Taylor thought was a must.
His thesis statement was that all human beings in essence are the same, especially regarding their mental capacity. In the chapter on the Maoris, the belief of mana and tabu is dealt with in terms of the evolution of human cultures.
The mana is manifested by the beliefs of the people and their dedication and responsibility to carry out particular things, while tabu mean they are restricted from doing certain things or have to approach specific situations with care and etiquette. Moreover, Maori understandings are based on collaborative and associative pairs which intertwine. The pairs are inseparable; hence, without a partner neither member of a pair could exist.
At times, this community of respective and responsible persons also includes persons such as deities, ancestors and faeries. The belief that animals as being people is claimed by animists who base their evidence on the fact that animals are not just alive; they also communicate and relate.
Animals do things in an intentional and purposive manner although much of it is done without interest in humans. Animism is often found among hunters and fishermen and Harvey describes the hunt for food as a sacred occupation where animals are 21 Thrower. The animist belief in this sense is the respectful act of the fish person, sacrificing his flesh to other people.
Death, he says, can serve as a test of strength of those relationships, and death can be conceived of as a transformation rather than a final cessation.
The transformation might be what life is all about, and hence funeral rites are to help aid the dead on their way. Harvey comes to the conclusion that animism is not to be seen as a part of the religious development, but as a definition of a religion.
The country has a tropical monsoon climate with an 84 percent humidity average, but the climate tends to vary considerably from place to place because of the variety of topographi- cal features and differences in latitude. Languages and Culture The Chinese, Indian, Khmer and French cultures have influenced the Vietnamese language, religion, architecture and art.
Nom was com- monly used, particularly in literature, until the 19th century. During the French colonial period and until the end of the 20th century, French was used in schools, and Vietnamese was only considered to be a second language.
Not until C.
How- ever, on holidays and festivals, the traditional Lunar Calendar is used. The Lunar Calendar, which begins in the year of B. One month is approxi- mately Since the first day of the month is determined by the day during which the moment of the new moon arrives, the Lunar New Year varies every year and occurs somewhere between January 21 and February In total, the Lunar Calendar is chronologically four to six months behind the solar calendar.
Each element exists in a pure form even though the majority of the people refer to themselves as Buddhists, although that is not entirely the case. Ancestor worship is a religious practice based on the belief that a deceased family member has a continued existence. The ancestor is believed to take interest in the world and also to be able to influence the fortune of the living as they continue to live in another realm. The Vietnamese believe that existence is a continuum stretching through birth, a life spent on Earth, followed by death and a spirit existence in another realm.
There is a widespread belief that those who die a violent death become malignant spirits and endanger the lives of those who come near the haunted spot.
God Tan Vien preventing flooding , God Giong resisting and defeating foreign invaders , God Chu Dong Tu along with his wife moving out of poverty to consistently build his 36 Wilkinson and Charing. Mother worship is somewhat different, and is linked to Vietnamese animism.
The female goddesses are to be found in lakes, seas, rivers, forests and so on, and are believed to have male counterparts. As paganism is defined as religious beliefs other than those of the main world religions, and often involves different ways of worshipping nature, Mother worship can be seen as a part of paganism, in the same way as pagans may be seen as a part of animism.
In Vietnamese religion, animism is a prominent feature which affects the daily life, as everything is believed to be conscious and part of the world, whether dead or alive; that is, everything is believed to have a soul. Vietnamese tend to worship species of animals which are easy to come by in the riverside regions like water-birds, snakes, and crocodiles. Folk beliefs and animism have endured and become mixed with orthodox religions. Shiva is believed to descend from the Vedic god Rudra.
Rudra is portrayed in the Vedas as an archer whose arrows carry illness and death. At the same time he is also believed to be a healer of a thousand diseases. Rudra is also said to be the father of the storm gods, the marutes. Shiva is worshipped as the destroyer and re-creator, and he is depicted in many forms, often carrying a trident. The eve of each new full moon is a night sacred to Shiva.
Ganesha, the son of Shiva, is considered the god of wisdom. Its female counterpart, Yoni, the symbol of the goddess Shakti, is often depicted in lingam temples as Shaktism is closely related to Shivaism. Those relig- ions that are believed to be a threat to national security, i. Because of this, the Vietnamese government has been criticized for its religion viola- tions.
It legalized hundreds of meeting places and allowed for training of hundreds of new clergy members. The govern- ment has released all prisoners held on the basis of their religious beliefs. The minority group is believed to descend from the Hindu Kingdom of Cham Pa. The dominant religion of the Cham people was Shivaism, and the culture was heavily influenced by India.
The Cambodian Kingdom of Angkor is perhaps most famous. Today the population, numbering approximately ,, is mainly concentrated on the central coast and most Chams are Muslims Cham Bani , though still heavily influenced by Hinduism. There are also significant Hindu Balamon and Mahayana Buddhist minorities. They have dwelled in all the oceans of the Planet for over 3 million years.
Even Cambodians and Laotians say that they do not hunt dolphins, and believe that bad luck will result from killing them. However, the fishermen always hold a ceremonial funeral and bury any Cetacean stranded or found dead at sea. The male Sperm Whale reaches The Sperm Whale is in danger of stranding it- self when it moves towards shore, probably because it is so well- adapted to deep water swimming. Retrieved Monday, January 22, , from http: The Irrawaddy Dolphin reaches up to cm and the weight of an adult exceeds kg.
It is identified by its bulging forehead, short beak and 12—19 teeth on each side of each jaw. Irrawaddy Dolphins feed on a variety of fish, crustaceans and cephalopods. The total number remaining of the species is unknown, since they rarely show themselves above water and are difficult to identify.
Field Research, Interviews and Observations The Vietnamese are very much out-dooring people, who rather spend their days on their front porch, in the streets and on pavements if not riding their motorcycles or working the fields. The widespread legend of the whale probably has its core in the surroundings of Phan Thiet, referred to as the whale relig- ion, and is quite prominent in that particular area. Because of the 61 Interview with Xinh During this era, many fishermen perished at sea, but the king did not have any option other than to escape with his men in a boat.
As the king and his men set off, they were struck by a great storm. Suddenly a large creature arose to the surface and rescued the king and his crew by bringing them ashore.
Some events are even told to children as fasci- nating bed-time stories. The boat was a small traditional boat, and could only hold two people. Suddenly the fishermen were in the middle of a storm and the captain of the boat panicked. Within five minutes, the waves had settled and the ongoing storm kept a five square meters radie from the boat. Early in the morning, they set off shore to buy fresh seafood from the fishing boats.
On their way back home, they were caught in the middle of a raging storm which thrashed their boat and left father and son floating in the water. The brothers were more or less known for their ability to always manage through storms and heavy rains and their boat was never damaged, although other fishermen had gotten into trouble due to foul weather.
The temple keeper is often the oldest man of the village and, following tra- dition, the title is passed on to family sons. The incense sticks, which in Vietnamese are called Huong, which mean good, are burned to bless the spirits and all other things involved in the ceremony, and also to make everyone feel at ease. By lighting incense, the smoke from the sticks brings food to the gods via the air.
The cere- mony ends once the incense goes out. The greatest fear among fishermen is death in the open sea, because dead fishermen are believed to wander in eternity as wandering ghosts if they do not find a home to rest.
It is believed, how- ever, that fishermen who have perished at sea are in need of funeral rituals to help the souls come to rest and thus find a home. The bandana also shows that the fisherman is impure, and will be for the following days. Perhaps this can be linked to dolphins being scientifically referred to as the dogs of the sea.
The fishermen make one exception to entering the temple as possibly im- pure, and that is during ceremonies. Fifteen years ago, wedding processions were not allowed to go near the temple at all. Nowadays wedding processions are not an issue, but the question is how much the old tradition still remains in the minds and acts of the worshippers. Traditional round boats at South China Beach.
The fishermen have a specific schedule as when to fish near the beach and when to go offshore. From the 20th to the 10th of the Lunar Calendar, the fishermen fish offshore. Before the fishermen leave, the fishermen turn to the temple to burn incense and to pray for protection and good fortune while at sea. Hence, the boats are blessed and different kinds of food are sacrificed at the beach.
The paper dolls symbolize each crew member, and are offered to the goddess as an exchange for not risking their own souls at sea and thus returning home safely. Between the 1st and the 9th of each Lunar month, the fishermen fish close to the shore. This kind of fishing is carried out in small, round traditional boats in which one fisherman alone is standing. This kind of fishing used to be the most dangerous kind of fishing since the boats easily flipped over.
As each boat only holds one fisherman, he could not rely on getting any help if the boat capsized, and thus many perished.
The boats have now been reconstructed, although they have maintained their traditional design, so they will not sink if they flip over. The fish are said to be growing new teeth and there- fore will not bite anyway, and therefore fishing is a waste of time.
The boats are then blessed at sea by a monk, and a ceremony is held. Meanwhile, his crew watch out for any danger that might linger at sea, i.
The differences mainly depend on the wealth of the village and how frequently the ceremonies and festivals are carried out. Many villages hold one major annual festival and several minor ceremonies. The whales at sea circled around for as long as the ceremony went on, and then they disappeared in the depths of the ocean.
It is worth noticing that seafood is never eaten during ceremonies and the Vietnamese, fisherman or not, do not eat whale meat, ever. Due to in- vestments in infrastructure many roads have been refurbished, which at times resulted in even smaller temple grounds.
When this happens, an expert is called to find a new suitable place of worship. The temple can only be moved after the fishermen have prayed for a good day and asked if the new place is a good place for worship. Unfortunately, the new sites available tend to be further away from the beach and sea shore. Each fishing village also has their 84 Interview with Gian Ceremonies usually last one day and focus on prayers, whereas festivals last for a period of three days and include both songs and prayers.
The oldest man in the village, who has a birth year that matches that of the particular year of the ceremony, leads the ceremony. For example, if the ceremony is held in the year of the Cat, the man leading the ceremony should also have been born in the year of the Cat. Figure 6. Ghost money — Vietnamese and American bills. Ghost money — Coins. Then the present season is presented and three prominent fishermen, usually older men with a great deal of experience, step forward to lead the ceremony.
The leader of the three men stands in the middle of the temple, and the other two stand on each side of him as the ceremonial worship begins. The three men invite the gods to attend, i. See original text in Appendix. The procedure during the invitation is carried out the same way as when the other gods are being called upon. In the final procedure, the gods are offered gold, silver coins made of paper, water and wine, all which have been placed on the altar before the ceremony begun.
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