Estimation and costing by dutta pdf free download estimation and costing civil engineering book. B N Datta Estimation and costing Book free. Dutta, B.N., “Estimating and Costing in Civil Engineering”, UBS Publishers & Distributors Pvt. Ltd., 2. Kohli, D.D and Kohli, R.C., “A Text Book of Estimating. Downlaod Estimation and Costing Book By B.N. Dutta – The book is complete in all respects in theory and practice, and covers the syllabi of degree, diploma.
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UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC). HANDBOOK: CONSTRUCTION COST ESTIMATING. Any copyrighted material included in this UFC is. PDF | ESTIMATION Estimation is the scientific way of working out the approximate cost of an engineering project before execution of the work. (A) ESTIMATING AND COSTING. UNIT -T. General items of work in Building - Standard Units Principles of working out quantities for detailed and abstract.
In case of upper floors the mortar bed shall be of 1: The marble slabs should be of approved quality and thickness 20mm to 25mm with truly plane surface. The size of marble slab shall be slightly oversize to permit cutting to actual size of tiles at the site of work. During the progress of work and for 10days after laying, each section of floor shall be kept flooded.
Three clear days shall be allowed for setting before the pavement is walked over and no weight should be rested upon the surface, until 7days after laying is completed, Polishing is done, as in case of Terrzo flooring and no first cutting is usually needed. Resting on wooden or reinforced cement concrete battens spaced 30 cm centre to centre.
The top of tiles shall have 13mm thick cement plaster 1: In all cases the construction shall be such as to ensure that the door shall be satisfactory in service. The width of the rebate shall be 13 mm. Each coat be allowed to dry before nest is applied. New plastered surface tone white washed, shall not be trowel led to a glaxed surface otherwise white wash will not adhere.
Water shall ne added to this lime in a tub, until the mixture is of a consistency of cream and allowed to rest for 24 to 48 hours. The mixture shall then be strained through coarse cloth, suitable quantity of gum shall be added, dissolved in hot water. This hot water shall be added at the rare of about 5 liters per kg. The pigment shall be such as to be unaffected by lime. The surface to be colour washed shall be given one coat of white wash and then one or two coats of colour washing. Each coat of site or colour wash is to be allowed to dry and passed by the Engineer- in-Charge before the next is applied.
The sand papering must be finished with the grain. Before applying paint, all knouts must be killed or covered with two coats of patents knotting or with a preparation of red lead glued size, laid on hot. When the wood work is thoroughly dry, the priming coat shall be applied.
Earth filling Embankment 1. Before any earth work is commenced, the ground be cleaned of all trees jungle and roots of every description. The embankment shall be made from borrow pits on either side of the road. The earth work should be laid in layers of 15 cm. The final compaction may be ordinary power roller. The side slopes of the formation should preferably be about 4 to 1 except in high embankments with goods soil where the slope be increased to 2 to 1. Soling coat 2.
Soling shall always be provided under the wearing coat except when the road is founded on a very hard natural surface such as on rock. Width The width of the soling shall always be 30 cms. More than the proposed width of the carriage way. For instance, if the carriageway is 3. In case where bricj on end edging is provided the width of soling shall be same as that of the width of carriageway.
Collection of soling Where soling coat of bricks is to be provided, all bricks shall be fully burnt or over burnt. The bats which are less than half a brick in size shall not be used.
Stacking The bricks or stones collected shall be stacked parallel to the centre line of the road and clear from the formation width. Gaps at least 1. Stone The stone shall be hard, durable and tough in texture and be obtained from an approved quarry. Kankar The kankar shall be tough and heavy, with a bluish fracture. After digging, it must be spread out for at least a month before being brought to the road side.
Laying The soling shall be laid at a stretch, the depth of which be equal to the depth of soling.
The trench shall be filled and the camber should be the same as that o the finished surface. The soling shall be laid carefully, hand packed with interstices filled with smaller pieces of the same material. Kankar After lying the soling, earth or sand shall be spread over it to a thickness of 2. Measurement In case of soling of stone boulders, stacks shall be measured 35 cm.
The metal shall be broken from hard durable tough stone of uniform texture from an approved quarry. Where metal has been broken from water worn boulders, no individual boulder shall weigh less than 3. Measurement In order to allow for loose stacking, shall be Stacking Same as per item 4 VI. Wearing coat consolidation Preparation of surface The surface of the soling shall be thoroughly cleaned of all dirt and brought to the camber that the finished road is to have.
Two parallel bunds of clay puddle, 23 cm. The bunds shall be strong enough to prevent the new metal from spreading as well as to retain the water used in consolidation.
Spreading of metal The stone metal shall then be spread over the surface true to the template Fig. The metal shall be carefully packed, the bigger pieces being placed below and the smaller pieces on the interstices of the bigger pieces.
The templates shall be used at a distance of approximately 7. Rolling and consolidation The metal shall then be rolled with a road roller commencing at the edges and working towards the centre. The metal is to be rolled dry until well compacted and there is no appreciable wave in front of an advancing roller. The whole medaling shall then be thoroughly water and kept saturated rolling continued until the consolidation is finished to the satisfaction of the engineer-in charge.
Bajri binding After the consolidation is practically complete, the binding material such as fine bajri obtained from screening or from a quarry shall be spread and the rolling and watering continued to such an extent that the binding material is formed into slurry and is grouted into interstices. For example in case of camber 1 in 72 the height at the centre above the outer edges shall be 1 cm.
Progress A power roller should be able to consolidate amount 34 cubic ketres of stone metal or 56 m2 of kankar in a day. Test of good consolidation Rough tests are as below: There are some essentials which a contractor is expected to have. Such as: He should be financially sound 2.
He should have sufficient knowledge to read the drawings 3. He should be well versed with the procedure or the department to carry out the work, submission of boils and experidhce 4.
Good reputation and experience 5. Should have ability to handle labor and material efficiently and properly.
Should be capable of arranging men and material as per requirement. In this offer, some specific articles are required by the department mentioning approximate rate, under certain conditions of contract. An agreement between the contractor and the department is executed, fixation of is the main clause, for the completion of the job. Earnest money It is a guarantee is the shape of money, gives by the contractor along with their tenders, confirming their willingness to work for the department.
In case, if the tender of the contractor is not accepted. The money is refunded immediately. Security money This is the money which the contractor has to deposit with the department when the contract is allotted to him.
This money also includes earnest money already deposited by the contractor. This deposit is kept as a check so that the conditions of the contract agreed upon are fulfilled and the work is the progress and quality of the work is not satisfactory. Classification of contracts The contracts can be classified as under: It is prepared by the administrative wing after all the above mentioned formalities are complete including administrative approval, technical sanction,funds,land acquisition etc.
The date of issue of the notice should 4 weeks before the receipt of tenders. Mode to send the earnest money should be mentioned clearly. Time, date and place where the drawings can be seen, should also be mentioned in the advertisement. Cost of tender from and its availability should be mentioned. Incomplete tender forms are likely to be rejected as per conditions mentioned. Opening of tenders The tenders are opened at the place mentioned in the tender form i.
Executive engineer, divisional accountant and office superintendent represent the department on one side and contractors or their representatives are on the other side.
The lock of the box in which sealed tenders are dropped by the contractors is opened in the presence of all. After checking the seals of the tender covers, these are opened and are signed by both the parties. Comparative statement is prepared item wise and the worm is allotted to the lowest bidder. The competent authority has powers to reject the tender of the lowest bidder, but he has to give reasons and confidential remarks, financial position and reputation of the contractor is also considered.
Earnest money to the bidders of rejected tenders is retuned. Signature of each contractor is taken as a token of certificate that tenders were opened in their presence and the allotment has been done to the right bidder. Contract agreement It is a contact deed between the government and the contractor. Divisional engineer signs on behalf of government. He is responsible for correct preparation and execution of the agreement.
The condition of the different departments varies for the preparation of the contract agreement. Preferably these be between the framework of manual of order. This number should be quoted for future correspondence. A copy of each of the following is forwarded here with: Valuation means fixation of cost or return expected of a building, engineering structure project Govt.
The value of a structure may be more or less depending upon the present utility of a structure. For example, a house having a number of rooms but smaller in size will fetch less value than a house, may be smaller in area but having well planned and proper sized of rooms. Necessity of Valuation The following reasons necessitates the valuation of property: For taking out on insurance policies. Roll of an Engineer The roll of an Engineer in valuation is felt when an Engineering structure is to be valued, if and when it is: The following factors require consideration for valuation: The Orientation of the building is according to Engineering rules.
It will fetch more cost than a building which is in a neglected condition and is locate at unhealthy site. Workmanship I attractive and the building is properly maintained, it will fetch more cost than the building in a neglected form with poor quality of material used. According to specifications a building is divided in four classes: Present day cost of a Engineering structure Saleable value Cost: Original cost of construction.
It is used to find out the loss of value of property due to various reasons. Net Income: Total amount of the income received from a property during the year, without deducting outgoing. Gross Income: Total amount of the income received form a property during the year, without deducting outgoing.
Net income: An amount left at the end of the year after deducting all usual outgoings. Out goings: The following are-various outgoings. This includes, chowkidar sweeper etc. These repairs are must to maintain the building. Lighting of common place, expenditure of liftman etc. This has to be deducted from gross income. Free hold Property: The owner can use the property in an way he likes.
But he will have to follow constraints fixed by town planners or Municipality before doing any construction. Lease hold: In case of building, the lease is for 99 years to 9 years. The owner who gives facilities is known as Servant owner and who enjoys facilities is called Dominant owner. Scrap Value: The amount is known as Scrap Value of a building. C structure, as in the latter case, the material has less reuse value.
Salvage Value: For example, railway sleepers can be re-used as posts and even old iron rails taken out can be used as beams in a roof or sheds of a building. Building Cost Index: For instance taking as abase year, the present as Building Cost Index may be taken 1. Capitalized value: To calculate the capitalized value, it is necessary to know highest rate of interest prevailing on such properties and net income form the property.
Sinking Fund: The sinking funds may be found out by taking a sinking fund policy with any insurance company or depositing some amount in the bank. Generally while calculating the sinking fund, life of the building is considered. Assuming the life of the machine as 20 years. In certain cases, old buildings are purchased and in that case scrap value into be deducted from the amount spent so as to calculate the amount of Sinking fund.
An old shop in the main market has been purchased by a person as a cost of Rs. Calculate the amount available at the end 50 years for Re. Find out the present value of Re. It may be defined as the figure which when multiplied by the net income from a property gives capitalized value of the property. And so on. Market Value: It is defined as the value which a property can fetch when sold out in open market.
This value is variable, depending upon the will to buy or sell. Book Value: It is the amount of a property shown in the books, after allowing necessary depreciations year-wise.
The book value is independent of market-value. The loss thus involve in the value of properties known as Depreciation.
This method has already been health with in details in the previous chapters. The plain the area is multiplied with plinth area rate. Detailed measurements of the building are taken and multiplied by current rates, sub-head-wise. The current rates are taken from schedule of rates and premium is added to it. B The value of the total construction is found out from the records entered in the measurement book. In this method, old cost is noted and is multiplied by the increase in price index i.
This depreciation increases with the time. The following are the values of rd for different structures. This life depends upon the durability of various materials used. Thus by seeing specification the life of a structure can be found out. The following chart shown expected life of the various materials and constructions. The following are the various methods of valuation: Life of each portion is found out using Table A. This value does not in clued cost of land, water supply, sanitary fitting, electric installations etc.
The cost of above items are added to get the total valuation of property. The estimated cost of a building is Rs. The life of the structure is assumed to be 80 years. Work out the cost of building for acquisition solution. The built up area is sq. The plinth area rate of this 1st class building is Rs. This rates includes cost of water supply, sanitary and electric installation. The age of the building is 40 years. The cost of the land is Rs.
Find out depreciated value if the life of the building is 20 years. Located at sui9table places is done where profit is of capitalized value. The net profit is worked out after deducting all possible outgoings and expenditures from the gross income. In such cases the cost will be too high as compared with the cost of construction actually incurred.
In certain cases, some additions, alterations and improvements are carried out which increases the cost of the building. The valuator should be careful while doing evaluation about this. In cases, when the building is still under development.
In this case the future development of the building and profits from it should be anticipated while evaluating. In this method the net income by the war of way of rent is found out after deducting all out goings from the gross income.
The practice in P. The total expenditure incurred on the construction i. This is also known as Standard Rent. If a land is purchased for the construction of the building, its cost should also be added while calculating the Rental statement.
To get the gross rent, outgoings such as annual repairs, municipal which will give rent per month. This is also known as standard rent. In case of private properties, the rent depends upon the situation, demand, type of construction, accommodation and facilities provided. For example a property used for Hotel, Cinema, Bank or Shop, located in the main market will fetch more rent than actually calculated.
The constructions to be done is of A class specifications. The water supply is from a common source. Prepare rental statement also. C framed structure building having estimated future life of 80 years, fetches a gross annual rent of Rs.
The plot measures sq. The other out goings are: There is no proposal to set up a sinking fund. They must follow the rules as mentioned in Departmental Financial Rules D. R manual in case of any fault on the part the officers, there is no rule to absolve them of their responsibility to apply the rules.
Postal stamps, national saving certificates, government securities, bonds etc. Cash Book It is a very important book maintained in a division and sub-division. This book has record of all transactions i. It is maintained on P. Form I. The pages of the register are machine numbered. Such page has receipt side on the left and payment side on the right. Maintenance of Cash Book All transactions of cash receipts and payment of a division or sub-division taking place, day by day, are recorded in register P.
Each page has receipt side on the left having 5 columns and payment side on the right having 7 columns. The points to be kept in mind are as under: All transactions should be maintained in the cash book by Divisional Engineer or S. All entries in the cash book must be made day by day in the concise and clear manner and transactions invariably recorded at the time and on the date on which they actually occur and strictly in order of their occurrence. Interpolation of entries should be avoided but when it becomes necessary to make an entry between two ruled lines or make any addition or alterations, these entries should be duly attested with signatures.
Incorrect entries should be crossed and correct entries written should be duly attested with dated initials of the disbursing officer. The S. The same blank space should be cancelled with diagonal lines. On payment side, there are two money columns, column 9 is meant for cast payment while columns 10 and 11 for payment by cheques. The cash in chest must be kept as low as possible.
The cash book must be checked by S. After checking both sides accounts, dated initials should be put under last entry. When a cheque is issued to add cash in the chest, its amount and number are recorded on payment side.
The account is simultaneously entered on receipt side as cash from treasury. When a new cheque is issued against a Time barred or lost cheque, the entry in red ink is made in column 8 only. The amount of the cheque is not to be shown in column When a cheque previously issued is to be cancelled, a minus entry in column 11 should be shown. A cross reference against original entry is necessary.
Reason of cancellation should also be given. Temporary advance or Imprest given should be entered in column 8, in red ink. The amount is not entered in column 9 as it still forms the part of cash.
In the column of money, only increase or decrease of imprest is recorded. The cash book should be balanced on the date prescribed for closing of cash book accounts of the month. It is advisable to have weekly balancing if entries are numbered. The details of actual cash found at the monthly counting should be recorded in form P. Whenever it is found that cash in the chest is not as per balance of the cash book, it should unless the error can be detected, be set right at once, be rectified forthwith by making the necessary receipts or payment entry.
As the case may be. The actual balance of cash in each chest should be counted on the last working day of each month. The details of actual balance should be recorded and a certificate of the count of cash specifying both in the words and figures, the actual cash balance excluding imprest an temporary advance and reconciliation of the balance so counted with the book balance should be recorded below the entry of each month.
The cash book should always be kept under lock and key. The cash related to this cash book is kept separate from that of main cash book.
Cash book is not follows. It becomes an irregularity, Although these irregularities may be of minor nature, but their impact may nor be that minor. The common irregularities are as under: Imprest It is maintained on form P. The power to gave imprest to an individual is given by a competent authority, with the understanding that no prior sanction is necessary for making payment.
Mainterance of Imprest Account 1. The fixed amount of imprest is entered in red ink in column 5. If additional amount is taken during the month, it is also entered in the same way. Entry for payment should be done strictly in accordance with their occurrence.
For keeping record of imprest, no other advance should be mixed with the imprest amount. The column 3 of the form is meant for full description of the work done or supplies made and name of the work for which purchase has been done.
Account of imprest should be closed at least 2 days before the closing of cash book. Imprest Cash Accounts Impreset cash book of Sh………………………………………. Cash Payment Account 1 2 3 4 5 6 Temporary Advance This is an advance given to a subordinate by the disbursing officer to enable him to make certain specific payments, such as payment to labour engaged on muster roll, pay-bill of work-charged establishment or any other payment for which passing orders have already been give.
The account of temporary advance is entered in form P. Parkinson and J. Very very thankful to you sir …. Thank you so much….. Summary PDF Quality: Related Posts. Civil Engineering Books , textbooks. Manohar Patrey July 25, Reply. Thank you so much. Aditya September 8, Reply. Thankyou so much!!!
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