A STUDY AND PROCEDURE GUIDE by. Brien R. Lang, D. D. S., M. S.. Professor and Chairman. Department of Complete Denture. William C. Godwin, D. D. S. ESSENTIALS OF COMPLETE DENTURE SE:RVICE. vitecek.infoR:D.D.S. '. The Ohio State University, College of Dentistry, Columbus, Ohio. This article. Start by marking “Boucher's Prosthodontic Treatment for Edentulous Patients” as Want to Read: Be the first to ask a question about Boucher's Prosthodontic Treatment for Edentulous Patients. Trivia About Boucher's Prostho.
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[George A Zarb; Charles L Bolender; Gunnar E Carlsson; Carl O Boucher;] Relining or rebasing of complete dentures / George A. Zarb -- retention of. Trove: Find and get Australian resources. Books, images, historic newspapers, maps, archives and more. PDF | Impression Techniques and Materials for Complete Denture Boucher CO () Complete denture prosthodontics--the state of the art.
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Feb 21, Rattiya Pethachang added it. Lauren rated it really liked it Nov 14, Sakina Sadik rated it it was amazing Jun 07, Ravneet Virk rated it really liked it Jan 26, Mary Rose rated it it was amazing Dec 08, Aysha Munasi rated it did not like it Apr 24, Meghna Pancholi rated it really liked it Apr 24, Mryoma Habebty rated it it was amazing Feb 07, Shahista rated it did not like it Oct 16, Lena Noviana rated it liked it Aug 22, Shan rated it it was amazing Jul 10, Alekhya rated it it was amazing Feb 08, Ana Khan rated it liked it Aug 09, Emphasis was made on the characteristics of the elastomers, their manipulation, the different techniques used, and the quality of the impression obtained.
The combination of excellent physical properties, handling characteristics, and unlimited dimensional stability assures the popularity of these impression materials. An impression is a record, a facsimile of mouth tissues taken at an unstrained rest position or in various positions of displacement Devan, In the case of an edentulous arch, this requires a unique combination of managing movable soft tissue commensurate with integrating different materials and a technique for accurate reproduction.
Appleby, ; Zarb et al. The history of complete denture impression procedures has been influenced largely by the development of impression materials from which new ideas and techniques arose. Some impression materials have been developed to accomplish specific goals and, at the time at least, were considered desirable for the purpose Starcke, ; Zinner and Sherman, ; Zarb et al.
The materials available for impression tray construction are as varied as are the materials for border molding and the final impression.
Selection of material is left to the discretion of the dentist, who makes choices based on personal preference and experience. The manner in which the impression was made may be more important than the material Firtell and Koumjian, ; Ivanhoe et al.
In the last decade, several investigators have recommended using newer elastomeric materials such as polyvinylsiloxane and polyether for final impressions to replace the older and more traditional materials Chee and Donovan, ; McCord et al.
Four basic types of elastomer impression materials are currently in use in the dental profession: The latter have been introduced relatively recently and are also called polyvinylsiloxanes Lacy et al. The purpose of this article was to review the characteristics of these materials that enhance their wide use in the complete denture final impression. Peer-reviewed articles published in English and in French between and , were identified through a MEDLINE search Pubmed and Elsevier and a hand search of relevant textbooks and annual publications.
Patient studies demonstrate that millions of individuals without complete dentitions will require prosthodontic treatment well into the 21st century Burton, ; Petropoulos and Rashedi, A recent review found that most patients are satisfied with the performance of conventional mucosal-borne complete dentures Donovan et al.
Most private practitioners have continued to use the denture fabrication methods which they learned in dental school, although often they modify their impression techniques to reflect the use of newer, more efficient materials. Improved efficiency in the denture fabrication process is important to most clinicians Burton, Differences are noticeable between the materials and methods currently used by dentists for final impressions in complete denture prosthodontics.
Even though the current generation of impression materials provides alternatives, making an initial impression still can be difficult when patients have significant resorption Pyle, Anecdotal evidence suggests that the impression techniques used in general dental practice may vary from those taught at dental schools Hyde and McCord, ; Burton, ; Duncan and Taylor, ; Drago, Earlier, Surila and Nakki compared opened and closed-moth techniques that used silicone impression material.
They concluded that the open-mouth technique was more likely to achieve good results than the closed-mouth technique in border molding with a high viscosity silicone material Surila and Nakki, In , Solomon used silicone materials for complete denture impressions: He concluded that the silicone impression material was preferable to the conventional low-fusing impression compound Solomon, Others continue to use the newer materials, but without the research in the technique to optimize the results Arbree et al.
Surveys published among British clinicians concluded that alginate remains the impression material of choice Harrison et al. Other materials mentioned as an option for secondary impressions included zinc oxide-eugenol and polyvinylsiloxane Hyde and McCord, ; Drago, Many schools were trying a variety of final impression materials, including ZOE, PVS, injectable alginate, condensation silicone, and fluid wax Drago, German dentists preferred an elastic impression material for functional impressions Genieser and Jakstat, For others, cake compound remains, in , useful for making accurate impressions in difficult cases involving resorption Pyle, In the same year, Sharry recommended secondary impressions with zinc oxide-eugenol and a spaced tray Pyle, Nassif, in , has concluded that a polysulfide rubber base material is the material of choice for reline impressions Nassif and Jumbelic, Describing five specialized techniques for definitive impressions, McGregor and Fen used four materials.
In his modified definitive impression technique, Duncan deliberately overextended irreversible hydrocolloid impressions for fabrication of master casts. Recently in , Chaffee et al. Massad, in , proposed the use of polyvinylsiloxanes for improving the stability of maxillary dentures Massad et al. The art of impression-making still requires skill, practice and understanding of the oral anatomy being impressed Burton, A brief mail survey of North American dental schools was undertaken in to ascertain the current techniques in complete denture prosthodontics.
The use of PR was still as popular in as it was in Jaggers. Only one school teaches the use of wax as an impression material, and then only for the mandibular impression. In , a survey of US dental schools was conducted in the predoctoral clinical curriculum. The choice of impression material s used today in dental schools shows how schools are moving toward newer materials and techniques and away from traditional materials, such as polysulfides and ZOE Petropoulos and Rashedi, The most popular material for border molding was a plastic modeling compound.
Distinct trends for increasing use of polyvinylsiloxane and polyether for border molding procedures and impressions of edentulous arches were observed both in members of the ACP and in the US dental schools Petrie et al. Despite all the advantages that elastomeric materials possess, a thorough understanding of the composition, physical properties, and manipulative variables of these materials is essential to achieve predictable success Chee and Donovan, They are well suited for making complete denture impressions Levin and Sauer, , and have simplified restorative procedures compared to inelastic materials Smith et al.
The material is available in automatic mixing systems, so it can be easily and evenly applied on the tray borders, with one insertion of the tray Smith et al. Good results are obtained with less expenditure of time as well as less discomfort and inconvenience for the patient, even in the hands of an inexperienced operator Appelbaum and Mehra, ; Loh, ; Duncan and Taylor, Compared to hand mixing, both automixing and electronic mixing techniques enhance the quality of a definitive impression.
Also, automixing was considered to be more economical than hand mixing because it wastes one third less volume of material as compared to hand mixing Chee and Donovan, ; Lepe et al.
The silicone, polysulfide rubber, and polyether impression materials can record the shape of soft tissues accurately if they are adequately supported by an accurately fitted tray Williams et al.
Greater accuracy was obtained in custom trays than with impressions made in stock trays. The bulk of elastomeric impression material and size of the undercut are of major importance Custer et al. They can guarantee accurate adaptation to the tissues without injurious displacement Appleby, ; Javid et al.
These materials are characterized by low stiffness and extremely large elastic strains Glossary of prosthodontic terms, Accuracy and consistency are best maintained by the use of custom tray and adhesives to retain polyvinylsiloxanes Lacy et al.
Inaccurate casts would result from lowered adhesive strength Nishigawa et al. Polyether rubber is intermediate in stability to polysulfide or silicone systems and polyvinylsiloxane when impression techniques involve adhesive bonding to custom-formed trays Lacy et al. The polysulfide rubbers must be closely confined to the soft tissues Zarb et al.
It appears that it is the material of choice for the optimal recording of the functional periphery seal in maxillary full dentures Zarb et al. In the dental practice, pouring of the impression is often delayed due to time constraints, and the majority of impressions are sent to a commercial laboratory for pouring Harrison et al.
Therefore, practitioners should be aware of the tolerable time delay for which the selected impression material will remain dimensionally accurate Petrie et al.
With these materials, the dimensional accuracy is usually time dependent, i. Early generations of VPS impression materials released hydrogen gas after setting, which required a delay in the pouring of casts to avoid bubbles.
This problem has been resolved by adding platinum or palladium to scavenge the gas, and this improvement has allowed the immediate pouring of casts without bubbles or voids Lepe et al.
The condensation-silicone systems should be poured as soon as possible after making the impression Lacy et al. VPS impression materials demonstrate excellent accuracy, and the fewest dimensional changes after multiple pours Lacy et al. The absence of volatile reaction products such as water or alcohol which are normally produced by the polysulfides and condensation-curing silicones during setting enhance the stability of the polysiloxane silicone materials. The latter cure by means of an addition reaction.
The loss of these products can produce significant shrinkage of the material. Small dimensional changes with time were reported with the polysiloxane materials when compared with the polysulfides and the condensation-curing silicones. Their stability is comparable to that of the polyethers, except that if the polyethers are stored in contact with moisture, swelling may occur with an accompanying loss of accuracy.
The polyether material Impregum expanded during storage Lacy et al. In contrast, polysulfide impression materials have acceptable dimensional accuracy only if poured immediately Williams et al. Bonded to custom trays, they show a progressive increase in die diameter with time. Dies produced from polysulfides over a 4-day period seem no more or less accurate then dies produced from condensation silicones impressed by the same mode Lacy et al.
There are also definite differences in the hydrophilic behavior of the most popular elastomeric materials that are used for final impressions for complete dentures. The original disadvantage of using VPS impression materials was their hydrophobic characteristics, producing an adverse effect on the surface quality of the polymerized impressions Utz et al.
Surfactants applied to the impression material, like polyether carbosilane PCS Nam et al. The choice of the most effective surfactant is critical and differs not only between the types of elastomer, but also between the brands of a single type. The beneficial effect of the optimal surfactant is not reduced by rinsing the impression prior to pouring. While the working time of silicone is increased by surfactant additions, that of the polysulfide is essentially unaffected, as are the dimensional accuracies and permanent deformations of both materials Norling and Reisbick, This allows the material to be in more intimate contact with tissues with the aim of capturing better surface detail and fewer defects Johnson et al.
Since oral mucosal tissues contain both the major and minor salivary glands, it is very difficult to attain or maintain a dry field when making impressions to capture the mucosal details of the edentulous arches Petrie et al.
When using polyvinylsiloxanes, moisture control remains a critical factor for the predictable success of the clinical impression. However, polysulfide and polyether impression materials, because of their more hydrophilic nature, should be more compatible with the inherent moisture of the edentulous arch mucosal tissues Firtell and Koumjian, ; Petrie et al.
Even though there is a need to control the salivary secretions when making impressions with polysulfide rubber Firtell and Koumjian, Polyether produced the best detail under moist conditions Johnson et al. The hydrophilic structures present in the polyether impression material are represented by carbonyl C O and ether C—O—C groups, while polysulfide impression material contains hydrophilic disulfide —S—S— and mercaptan groups —S—H.
The chemical structures containing available functional groups attract and interact with water molecules through hydrogen bonding Petrie et al. The monophase technique whether polyether or vinyl polysiloxane generally produced better detail under either wet or dry conditions compared to the dual-viscosity technique. However, others found that monophase impressions produce more voids than 2-phase impressions Johnson et al.
In conclusion, the results among the investigators have been variable, but there is agreement in the relative order of increasing hydrophilicity for elastomeric impression materials; silicone is less hydrophilic than polysulfide, which in turn is less hydrophilic than polyether Pratten and Craig, An impression of an edentulous area is a negative reproduction of tissue positions recorded at the moment of setting of the impression material Firtell and Koumjian, Please verify that you are not a robot.
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